Hormonal and psychological factors in nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

G.W.F. Dekkers, M.A.C. Broeren, S.E.M. Truijens, W.J. Kop, V.J.M. Pop*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Background
The aetiology of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is multifactorial, but the relative contribution of biological and psychological determinants is insufficiently understood. We examined the association of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), thyroid hormones (thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroxin) and psychological factors with NVP.

Methods
Blood chemistry and psychological measures were obtained in 1682 pregnant women participating in the Holistic Approach to Pregnancy and the first Postpartum Year (HAPPY) study between 12 and 14 weeks of gestation. The presence of NVP was measured using the Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis scale. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the independent role of hCG, thyroid hormones and depression as related to NVP, adjusting for age, body mass index, education, parity, smoking status, unplanned pregnancy and history of depression.

Results
Elevated levels of NVP were observed in 318 (18.9%) participants. High hCG levels [odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11–1.95], elevated depressive symptoms in the first trimester (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.15–2.43) and a history of depression (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.11–2.11) were independently related to high NVP. Multiparity (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.12–1.92) and younger age (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.87–0.94) were also associated with high NVP, whereas (sub)clinical hyperthyroidism was not related to high NVP.

Conclusions
The current study is the first to demonstrate that a combination of hCG hormone and psychological factors are independently related to nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages8
JournalPsychological Medicine
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2019

Fingerprint

Depression
Odds Ratio
Confidence Intervals
Parity
Body Mass Index
Logistic Models
Hormones
Education

Cite this

@article{52b818d803e640c0ad38228c4b493858,
title = "Hormonal and psychological factors in nausea and vomiting during pregnancy",
abstract = "BackgroundThe aetiology of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is multifactorial, but the relative contribution of biological and psychological determinants is insufficiently understood. We examined the association of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), thyroid hormones (thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroxin) and psychological factors with NVP.MethodsBlood chemistry and psychological measures were obtained in 1682 pregnant women participating in the Holistic Approach to Pregnancy and the first Postpartum Year (HAPPY) study between 12 and 14 weeks of gestation. The presence of NVP was measured using the Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis scale. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the independent role of hCG, thyroid hormones and depression as related to NVP, adjusting for age, body mass index, education, parity, smoking status, unplanned pregnancy and history of depression.ResultsElevated levels of NVP were observed in 318 (18.9{\%}) participants. High hCG levels [odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, 95{\%} confidence interval (CI) = 1.11–1.95], elevated depressive symptoms in the first trimester (OR = 1.67, 95{\%} CI = 1.15–2.43) and a history of depression (OR = 1.53, 95{\%} CI = 1.11–2.11) were independently related to high NVP. Multiparity (OR = 1.47, 95{\%} CI = 1.12–1.92) and younger age (OR = 0.91, 95{\%} CI = 0.87–0.94) were also associated with high NVP, whereas (sub)clinical hyperthyroidism was not related to high NVP.ConclusionsThe current study is the first to demonstrate that a combination of hCG hormone and psychological factors are independently related to nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy",
author = "G.W.F. Dekkers and M.A.C. Broeren and S.E.M. Truijens and W.J. Kop and V.J.M. Pop",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1017/S0033291718004105",
language = "English",
journal = "Psychological Medicine",
issn = "0033-2917",
publisher = "CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS",

}

Hormonal and psychological factors in nausea and vomiting during pregnancy. / Dekkers, G.W.F.; Broeren, M.A.C.; Truijens, S.E.M.; Kop, W.J.; Pop, V.J.M.

In: Psychological Medicine, 2019.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Hormonal and psychological factors in nausea and vomiting during pregnancy

AU - Dekkers, G.W.F.

AU - Broeren, M.A.C.

AU - Truijens, S.E.M.

AU - Kop, W.J.

AU - Pop, V.J.M.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - BackgroundThe aetiology of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is multifactorial, but the relative contribution of biological and psychological determinants is insufficiently understood. We examined the association of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), thyroid hormones (thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroxin) and psychological factors with NVP.MethodsBlood chemistry and psychological measures were obtained in 1682 pregnant women participating in the Holistic Approach to Pregnancy and the first Postpartum Year (HAPPY) study between 12 and 14 weeks of gestation. The presence of NVP was measured using the Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis scale. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the independent role of hCG, thyroid hormones and depression as related to NVP, adjusting for age, body mass index, education, parity, smoking status, unplanned pregnancy and history of depression.ResultsElevated levels of NVP were observed in 318 (18.9%) participants. High hCG levels [odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11–1.95], elevated depressive symptoms in the first trimester (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.15–2.43) and a history of depression (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.11–2.11) were independently related to high NVP. Multiparity (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.12–1.92) and younger age (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.87–0.94) were also associated with high NVP, whereas (sub)clinical hyperthyroidism was not related to high NVP.ConclusionsThe current study is the first to demonstrate that a combination of hCG hormone and psychological factors are independently related to nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy

AB - BackgroundThe aetiology of nausea and vomiting during pregnancy (NVP) is multifactorial, but the relative contribution of biological and psychological determinants is insufficiently understood. We examined the association of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), thyroid hormones (thyroid-stimulating hormone and thyroxin) and psychological factors with NVP.MethodsBlood chemistry and psychological measures were obtained in 1682 pregnant women participating in the Holistic Approach to Pregnancy and the first Postpartum Year (HAPPY) study between 12 and 14 weeks of gestation. The presence of NVP was measured using the Pregnancy-Unique Quantification of Emesis scale. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Edinburgh Depression Scale. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to investigate the independent role of hCG, thyroid hormones and depression as related to NVP, adjusting for age, body mass index, education, parity, smoking status, unplanned pregnancy and history of depression.ResultsElevated levels of NVP were observed in 318 (18.9%) participants. High hCG levels [odds ratio (OR) = 1.47, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.11–1.95], elevated depressive symptoms in the first trimester (OR = 1.67, 95% CI = 1.15–2.43) and a history of depression (OR = 1.53, 95% CI = 1.11–2.11) were independently related to high NVP. Multiparity (OR = 1.47, 95% CI = 1.12–1.92) and younger age (OR = 0.91, 95% CI = 0.87–0.94) were also associated with high NVP, whereas (sub)clinical hyperthyroidism was not related to high NVP.ConclusionsThe current study is the first to demonstrate that a combination of hCG hormone and psychological factors are independently related to nausea and vomiting during early pregnancy

U2 - 10.1017/S0033291718004105

DO - 10.1017/S0033291718004105

M3 - Article

JO - Psychological Medicine

JF - Psychological Medicine

SN - 0033-2917

ER -