How are depression and Type D Personality associated with outcomes in chronic heart failure patients?

J.W. Widdershoven, D.E.F. Kessing, A.A.J. Schiffer, J. Denollet, N. Kupper

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articleScientificpeer-review


This review aims to summarize the current evidence for the association of depression and Type D personality with clinical and patient-centred outcomes and self-care in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients. Emotional distress is highly prevalent in CHF patients. In contrast to results in coronary artery disease, there is inconsistent evidence for the adverse effects of depression and Type D on prognosis. Type D and depression are important predictors of impaired health status in CHF, and patients characterised by depression or Type D report reduced self-care. Pathophysiological processes associated with depression and Type D are discussed, as they may contribute to disease progression. Future research may benefit from taking inconsistencies in and problems with assessment of depression and Type D into account, as well as focusing on the network of psychophysiological and behavioural factors to elucidate their precise role in CHF patients with depression or Type D. Furthermore, it is advised that clinicians address the observed differences in self-care behaviours to improve health in CHF patients with depression or Type D personality.
Keywords: Depression, Type D personality, Chronic heart failure, Medical outcomes, Patient reported outcomes, Behavioural, Biological, Mechanisms, Mortality, Review, Emotional distress, Health status, Self-care, Psychobiological
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)244-253
JournalCurrent Heart Failure Reports
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013


Cite this