Hybrid differentiation and competition beyond markets

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientific

399 Downloads (Pure)


Hybrid differentiation occurs when a platform discriminates among businesses in a related market in which it is not active itself with the aim to increase or maintain its competitive advantage elsewhere. An example is a platform blocking an app that interferes with its ability to gain revenues through advertising. Hybrid differentiation is particularly relevant where a platform builds an ecosystem or conglomerate around its main activity. As a competitive strategy beyond vertical integration that serves to protect the platform’s overall activities and business model, hybrid differentiation is different from the self-preferencing at stake in Google Shopping. This paper submits that the assessment of hybrid differentiation requires attention for the broader competitive strategies of dominant platforms going beyond traditional forms of leveraging and the relevant markets in which they operate.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-8
Number of pages8
JournalCompetition Policy International - Antitrust Chronicle
VolumeJune 2020
Issue numberII
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2020


  • Discrimination
  • Innovation
  • Potential competition
  • Online platforms
  • Digital ecosystems
  • Access
  • Tying


Dive into the research topics of 'Hybrid differentiation and competition beyond markets'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this