Identity Statuses as Developmental Trajectories: A Five-Wave Longitudinal Study in Early-to-Middle and Middle-to-Late Adolescents

Wim Meeus*, Rens van de Schoot, Loes Keijsers, Susan Branje

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

52 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This study tested whether Marcia's original identity statuses of achievement, moratorium, early closure (a new label for foreclosure), and diffusion, can be considered identity status trajectories. That is, we examined whether these statuses are distinct and relatively stable, over-time configurations of commitment strength, levels of in-depth exploration of present commitments, and consideration of alternative commitments. The study examined identity development in a five-wave study of 923 early-to-middle (49.3% female) and 390 middle-to-late adolescents (56.7% female), covering the ages of 12-20. Using Latent class growth analysis (LCGA), the authors found that Marcia's (1966) statuses are indeed identity status trajectories. Two kinds of moratorium were also found: the classical moratorium and searching moratorium. Support was found for Waterman's developmental hypothesis of the identity status model: the number of achievers was significantly higher, and the number of diffusions lower, in middle-to-late adolescence than in early-to-middle adolescence. Females were more often in the advanced identity status trajectories, and stable differences were found between the trajectories in psychosocial adjustment. Study findings highlight that identity formation should be conceptualized as an over-time process.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1008-1021
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Youth and Adolescence
Volume41
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2012
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Identity
  • Identity status trajectories
  • Adolescence
  • Psychosocial adjustment
  • Latent class growth analysis (LCGA)
  • VARIABLE-CENTERED ANALYSES
  • INDIVIDUALIZATION PROCESS
  • PSYCHOSOCIAL INVENTORY
  • EMERGING ADULTHOOD
  • EGO STRENGTHS
  • ETHNIC-GROUPS
  • VALIDATION
  • GROWTH
  • MODEL
  • DIMENSIONS

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