Implicit attitudes predict drinking onset in adolescents

Shaping by social norms

B. Keith Payne*, Kent M. Lee, M. Giletta, Mitchell J. Prinstein

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Objective: 

Implicit attitudes toward alcohol predict drinking among adults and adolescents. If implicit attitudes reflected associations learned through direct experience with drinking, then they would likely only predict drinking among individuals who have previously consumed alcohol. In contrast, if implicit attitudes reflected indirect experience through social messages, they might also then predict future drinking, even among individuals with no drinking experience. In this study, we tested whether implicit attitudes would predict initiation of drinking for the first time, and whether parents' and friends' norms toward alcohol would influence the development of implicit attitudes. 

Method: 

For this study, we followed 868 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 15 years for 3 years. Implicit attitudes were measured using the affect misattribution procedure (Payne, Cheng, Govorun, & Stewart, 2005; Payne, Govorun, & Arbuckle, 2008). Explicit intentions to drink and the frequency of drinking and binge drinking were measured at each of 3 annual waves. 

Results: 

Implicit attitudes toward alcohol predicted future drinking behavior 1 year later, and effects were similar for adolescents who had previously tried alcohol and for those who had not. To understand what factors might shape implicit attitudes among participants without drinking experience, we examined the role of parental norms and friends' norms toward drinking. Parental approval of drinking predicted the development of more positive implicit attitudes, which in turn predicted later drinking. 

Conclusion: 

Implicit attitudes toward alcohol can develop in advance of direct experience drinking alcohol. Results have implications for the implicit processes underpinning adolescent drinking, and the processes by which implicit associations are learned.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)829-836
JournalHealth Psychology
Volume35
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2016

Keywords

  • implicit attitudes
  • implicit cognition
  • alcohol
  • addictive behavior
  • peer influence
  • AFFECT MISATTRIBUTION PROCEDURE
  • ALCOHOL-RELATED COGNITIONS
  • ASSOCIATION TEST
  • RISK BEHAVIOR
  • SUBSTANCE USE
  • EXPLICIT
  • IAT
  • RELIABILITY
  • ADDICTION
  • DRINKERS

Cite this

Payne, B. Keith ; Lee, Kent M. ; Giletta, M. ; Prinstein, Mitchell J. / Implicit attitudes predict drinking onset in adolescents : Shaping by social norms. In: Health Psychology. 2016 ; Vol. 35, No. 8. pp. 829-836.
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Implicit attitudes predict drinking onset in adolescents : Shaping by social norms. / Payne, B. Keith; Lee, Kent M.; Giletta, M.; Prinstein, Mitchell J.

In: Health Psychology, Vol. 35, No. 8, 08.2016, p. 829-836.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Implicit attitudes predict drinking onset in adolescents

T2 - Shaping by social norms

AU - Payne, B. Keith

AU - Lee, Kent M.

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AU - Prinstein, Mitchell J.

PY - 2016/8

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N2 - Objective: Implicit attitudes toward alcohol predict drinking among adults and adolescents. If implicit attitudes reflected associations learned through direct experience with drinking, then they would likely only predict drinking among individuals who have previously consumed alcohol. In contrast, if implicit attitudes reflected indirect experience through social messages, they might also then predict future drinking, even among individuals with no drinking experience. In this study, we tested whether implicit attitudes would predict initiation of drinking for the first time, and whether parents' and friends' norms toward alcohol would influence the development of implicit attitudes. Method: For this study, we followed 868 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 15 years for 3 years. Implicit attitudes were measured using the affect misattribution procedure (Payne, Cheng, Govorun, & Stewart, 2005; Payne, Govorun, & Arbuckle, 2008). Explicit intentions to drink and the frequency of drinking and binge drinking were measured at each of 3 annual waves. Results: Implicit attitudes toward alcohol predicted future drinking behavior 1 year later, and effects were similar for adolescents who had previously tried alcohol and for those who had not. To understand what factors might shape implicit attitudes among participants without drinking experience, we examined the role of parental norms and friends' norms toward drinking. Parental approval of drinking predicted the development of more positive implicit attitudes, which in turn predicted later drinking. Conclusion: Implicit attitudes toward alcohol can develop in advance of direct experience drinking alcohol. Results have implications for the implicit processes underpinning adolescent drinking, and the processes by which implicit associations are learned.

AB - Objective: Implicit attitudes toward alcohol predict drinking among adults and adolescents. If implicit attitudes reflected associations learned through direct experience with drinking, then they would likely only predict drinking among individuals who have previously consumed alcohol. In contrast, if implicit attitudes reflected indirect experience through social messages, they might also then predict future drinking, even among individuals with no drinking experience. In this study, we tested whether implicit attitudes would predict initiation of drinking for the first time, and whether parents' and friends' norms toward alcohol would influence the development of implicit attitudes. Method: For this study, we followed 868 adolescents between the ages of 12 and 15 years for 3 years. Implicit attitudes were measured using the affect misattribution procedure (Payne, Cheng, Govorun, & Stewart, 2005; Payne, Govorun, & Arbuckle, 2008). Explicit intentions to drink and the frequency of drinking and binge drinking were measured at each of 3 annual waves. Results: Implicit attitudes toward alcohol predicted future drinking behavior 1 year later, and effects were similar for adolescents who had previously tried alcohol and for those who had not. To understand what factors might shape implicit attitudes among participants without drinking experience, we examined the role of parental norms and friends' norms toward drinking. Parental approval of drinking predicted the development of more positive implicit attitudes, which in turn predicted later drinking. Conclusion: Implicit attitudes toward alcohol can develop in advance of direct experience drinking alcohol. Results have implications for the implicit processes underpinning adolescent drinking, and the processes by which implicit associations are learned.

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KW - alcohol

KW - addictive behavior

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KW - RISK BEHAVIOR

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KW - EXPLICIT

KW - IAT

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KW - DRINKERS

U2 - 10.1037/hea0000353

DO - 10.1037/hea0000353

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SP - 829

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JO - Health Psychology

JF - Health Psychology

SN - 0278-6133

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ER -