The present study investigated the role of control as a moderator in reaction to ostracism among male violent offenders diagnosed with ASPD (N = 33) compared to a control sample consisting of males from the normal population without a known history of violence, or diagnosis of ASPD, matched for age and educational level (N = 35). Participants played an altered version of the Cyberball game in which they could control the course of the game or not. The authors predicted and found that having control prior to ostracism would mitigate the effect of ostracism on implicit threat vigilance among violent offenders diagnosed with ASPD, but not among normal individuals. The results suggest that control needs are crucial in the typology of ASPD.
Celik, P., van Beest, I., Lammers, J., & Bekker, M. H. J. (2013). Implicit threat vigilance among violent offenders diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder: The impact of ostracism and control threat. International Journal of Developmental Science, 7(1), 47-55. https://doi.org/10.3233/dev-1312116