Inclusive practice and quality of education and care in the Dutch hybrid early childhood education and care system

W. M. van der Werf*, P. L. Slot, P. N. Kenis, P. P. M. Leseman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


The present study examined how in the context of the hybrid, privatized and marketized Dutch early education and care system (ECEC), childcare organizations respond to the public task of supporting inclusion and equity in an increasingly diverse society. Applying cluster analysis on the organizational characteristics of a nationally representative sample of 117 centers providing education and care for 0- to 4-year-old children, three types of organizations were identified that differed strongly on cultural inclusion and observed quality in the classroom. Socially engaged (for-profit and not-for-profit) professional organizations served proportionally more children from low-SES and immigrant families, provided higher quality to these children, and were culturally more inclusive than both market-orientated and traditional professional-bureaucratic organizations. The findings are discussed with regard to the question how hybrid ECEC systems can be governed to optimally serve the public goals of inclusion and equity.
Original languageEnglish
Article number2
JournalInternational journal of child care and education policy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2021


  • Early childhood education and care
  • Privatization
  • System hybridity
  • Cultural inclusiveness
  • Process quality
  • ECEC

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