Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Netherlands cohort: Associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients

S. Liu, Y.T. van der Schouw, S.S. Soedamah-Muthu, A.M.W. Spijkerman, I. Sluijs*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

15 Downloads (Pure)

Abstract

Purpose:
The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients.

Methods:
37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPICNL) cohort were included in this study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire.
T2D risks were estimated by Cox regression models adjusted for non-dietary and dietary covariates.

Results:
893 incident T2D cases were documented during 10.1-year follow-up. We observed no association between total SFA and T2D risk. Marginally inverse associations were found for lauric acid (HR per 1 SD of energy%, 95% CI 0.92, 0.85–0.99), myristic acid (0.89, 0.79–0.99), margaric acid (0.84, 0.73–0.97), odd-chain SFA (pentadecylic plus margaric acids; 0.88, 0.79–0.99), and cheese derived SFA (0.90, 0.83–0.98). Soft and liquid fats derived SFA was found related to higher T2D risk (1.08, 1.01–1.17). When substituting SFA by proteins, carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly higher risks of T2D were observed (HRs per 1 energy% ranging from 1.05 to 1.15).

Conclusion:
In this Dutch population, total SFA does not relate to T2D risk. Rather, the association may depend on the types and food sources of SFA. Cheese-derived SFA and individual SFA that are commonly found in cheese, were significantly
related to lower T2D risks. We cannot exclude the higher T2D risks found for soft and liquid fats derived SFA and for substituting SFA with other macronutrients are influenced by residual confounding by trans fatty acids or limited intake variation in polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetable protein.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1125-1136
JournalEuropean Journal of Nutrition
Volume58
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Fingerprint

Netherlands
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Fatty Acids
Neoplasms
Cheese
Unsaturated Fatty Acids
Fats
Vegetable Proteins
Trans Fatty Acids
Myristic Acid
Proportional Hazards Models

Keywords

  • CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE
  • Cohort study
  • DOSE-RESPONSE METAANALYSIS
  • ENERGY-INTAKE
  • Epidemiology
  • FOOD-FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE
  • GLUCOSE-TOLERANCE
  • GLYCEMIC INDEX
  • LOAD
  • Nutrition
  • PLASMA
  • PROTEIN-INTAKE
  • RELATIVE VALIDITY
  • Saturated fatty acids
  • Type 2 diabetes

Cite this

@article{2bd7f0fcaf5a43779caf324a06d35426,
title = "Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Netherlands cohort: Associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients",
abstract = "Purpose:The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients.Methods:37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPICNL) cohort were included in this study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire.T2D risks were estimated by Cox regression models adjusted for non-dietary and dietary covariates.Results:893 incident T2D cases were documented during 10.1-year follow-up. We observed no association between total SFA and T2D risk. Marginally inverse associations were found for lauric acid (HR per 1 SD of energy{\%}, 95{\%} CI 0.92, 0.85–0.99), myristic acid (0.89, 0.79–0.99), margaric acid (0.84, 0.73–0.97), odd-chain SFA (pentadecylic plus margaric acids; 0.88, 0.79–0.99), and cheese derived SFA (0.90, 0.83–0.98). Soft and liquid fats derived SFA was found related to higher T2D risk (1.08, 1.01–1.17). When substituting SFA by proteins, carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly higher risks of T2D were observed (HRs per 1 energy{\%} ranging from 1.05 to 1.15).Conclusion:In this Dutch population, total SFA does not relate to T2D risk. Rather, the association may depend on the types and food sources of SFA. Cheese-derived SFA and individual SFA that are commonly found in cheese, were significantlyrelated to lower T2D risks. We cannot exclude the higher T2D risks found for soft and liquid fats derived SFA and for substituting SFA with other macronutrients are influenced by residual confounding by trans fatty acids or limited intake variation in polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetable protein.",
keywords = "CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE, Cohort study, DOSE-RESPONSE METAANALYSIS, ENERGY-INTAKE, Epidemiology, FOOD-FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE, GLUCOSE-TOLERANCE, GLYCEMIC INDEX, LOAD, Nutrition, PLASMA, PROTEIN-INTAKE, RELATIVE VALIDITY, Saturated fatty acids, Type 2 diabetes",
author = "S. Liu and {van der Schouw}, Y.T. and S.S. Soedamah-Muthu and A.M.W. Spijkerman and I. Sluijs",
year = "2019",
doi = "10.1007/s00394-018-1630-4",
language = "English",
volume = "58",
pages = "1125--1136",
journal = "European Journal of Nutrition",
issn = "1436-6207",
publisher = "D. Steinkopff-Verlag",
number = "3",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Intake of dietary saturated fatty acids and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Netherlands cohort

T2 - Associations by types, sources of fatty acids and substitution by macronutrients

AU - Liu, S.

AU - van der Schouw, Y.T.

AU - Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.

AU - Spijkerman, A.M.W.

AU - Sluijs, I.

PY - 2019

Y1 - 2019

N2 - Purpose:The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients.Methods:37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPICNL) cohort were included in this study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire.T2D risks were estimated by Cox regression models adjusted for non-dietary and dietary covariates.Results:893 incident T2D cases were documented during 10.1-year follow-up. We observed no association between total SFA and T2D risk. Marginally inverse associations were found for lauric acid (HR per 1 SD of energy%, 95% CI 0.92, 0.85–0.99), myristic acid (0.89, 0.79–0.99), margaric acid (0.84, 0.73–0.97), odd-chain SFA (pentadecylic plus margaric acids; 0.88, 0.79–0.99), and cheese derived SFA (0.90, 0.83–0.98). Soft and liquid fats derived SFA was found related to higher T2D risk (1.08, 1.01–1.17). When substituting SFA by proteins, carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly higher risks of T2D were observed (HRs per 1 energy% ranging from 1.05 to 1.15).Conclusion:In this Dutch population, total SFA does not relate to T2D risk. Rather, the association may depend on the types and food sources of SFA. Cheese-derived SFA and individual SFA that are commonly found in cheese, were significantlyrelated to lower T2D risks. We cannot exclude the higher T2D risks found for soft and liquid fats derived SFA and for substituting SFA with other macronutrients are influenced by residual confounding by trans fatty acids or limited intake variation in polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetable protein.

AB - Purpose:The association between dietary saturated fatty acids (SFA) intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) remains unclear. This study aimed at investigating the association between SFA intake and T2D risk based on (1) individual SFA (differing in carbon chain length), (2) food sources of SFA and (3) the substituting macronutrients.Methods:37,421 participants from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition-Netherlands (EPICNL) cohort were included in this study. Baseline dietary intake was assessed by a validated food frequency questionnaire.T2D risks were estimated by Cox regression models adjusted for non-dietary and dietary covariates.Results:893 incident T2D cases were documented during 10.1-year follow-up. We observed no association between total SFA and T2D risk. Marginally inverse associations were found for lauric acid (HR per 1 SD of energy%, 95% CI 0.92, 0.85–0.99), myristic acid (0.89, 0.79–0.99), margaric acid (0.84, 0.73–0.97), odd-chain SFA (pentadecylic plus margaric acids; 0.88, 0.79–0.99), and cheese derived SFA (0.90, 0.83–0.98). Soft and liquid fats derived SFA was found related to higher T2D risk (1.08, 1.01–1.17). When substituting SFA by proteins, carbohydrates and polyunsaturated fatty acids, significantly higher risks of T2D were observed (HRs per 1 energy% ranging from 1.05 to 1.15).Conclusion:In this Dutch population, total SFA does not relate to T2D risk. Rather, the association may depend on the types and food sources of SFA. Cheese-derived SFA and individual SFA that are commonly found in cheese, were significantlyrelated to lower T2D risks. We cannot exclude the higher T2D risks found for soft and liquid fats derived SFA and for substituting SFA with other macronutrients are influenced by residual confounding by trans fatty acids or limited intake variation in polyunsaturated fatty acids and vegetable protein.

KW - CORONARY-HEART-DISEASE

KW - Cohort study

KW - DOSE-RESPONSE METAANALYSIS

KW - ENERGY-INTAKE

KW - Epidemiology

KW - FOOD-FREQUENCY QUESTIONNAIRE

KW - GLUCOSE-TOLERANCE

KW - GLYCEMIC INDEX

KW - LOAD

KW - Nutrition

KW - PLASMA

KW - PROTEIN-INTAKE

KW - RELATIVE VALIDITY

KW - Saturated fatty acids

KW - Type 2 diabetes

U2 - 10.1007/s00394-018-1630-4

DO - 10.1007/s00394-018-1630-4

M3 - Article

C2 - 29524001

VL - 58

SP - 1125

EP - 1136

JO - European Journal of Nutrition

JF - European Journal of Nutrition

SN - 1436-6207

IS - 3

ER -