International trade, species diversity, and habitat conservation

Sjak Smulders, D.P. van Soest, C.A.A.M. Withagen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)
408 Downloads (Pure)


Trade barriers mayimprove welfare if propertyrights with respect to renewable natural resources are
lacking. Previous studies focus on the role of overharvesting, but we argue that trade-induced habitat
destruction should also be taken into account. Habitat is one of the keyfactors determining the long-run
viabilityof manynatural resources, and economic activityoftentimes goes at the expense of habitat. While
open access gives rise to within-industryexternalities, habitat destruction creates across-industry
externalities. We identifyunder what circumstances trade liberalization is welfare-enhancing as well as
contributing to nature conservation, and analyze the consequences of trade policy.
r 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)891-910
Number of pages19
JournalJournal of Environmental Economics and Management
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2004


  • trade policy
  • trade liberalization
  • nature conservation
  • renewable resources
  • species diversity


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