Latent Markov factor analysis for exploring measurement model changes in time-intensive longitudinal studies

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Abstract

When time-intensive longitudinal data are used to study daily-life dynamics of psychological constructs (e.g., well-being) within persons over time (e.g., by means of experience sampling methodology), the measurement model (MM)—indicating which constructs are measured by which items—can be affected by time- or situation-specific artifacts (e.g., response styles and altered item interpretation). If not captured, these changes might lead to invalid inferences about the constructs. Existing methodology can only test for a priori hypotheses on MM changes, which are often absent or incomplete. Therefore, we present the exploratory method “latent Markov factor analysis” (LMFA), wherein a latent Markov chain captures MM changes by clustering observations per subject into a few states. Specifically, each state gathers validly comparable observations, and state-specific factor analyses reveal what the MMs look like. LMFA performs well in recovering parameters under a wide range of simulated conditions, and its empirical value is illustrated with an example.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)557-575
JournalStructural Equation Modeling
Volume26
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

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Keywords

  • experience sampling
  • measurement invariance
  • factor analysis
  • latent Markov modeling
  • EXPLORATORY FACTOR-ANALYSIS
  • CROSS-CULTURAL RESEARCH
  • WEAK FACTOR LOADINGS
  • MAXIMUM-LIKELIHOOD
  • MONTE-CARLO
  • COMPONENT ANALYSIS
  • ANALYTIC ROTATION
  • RESPONSE STYLE
  • SAMPLE-SIZE
  • DAILY-LIFE

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