Both adverse early life-events and distressed personality are associated with an increased cardiovascular risk. As there is an important link between these psychological factors, we investigated how these might cluster in sex-specific psychological profiles. We further examined the association of these profiles with cardiovascular risk markers.
446 women (mean age = 49.8 +/- 17.9 years) and 431 men (mean age = 49.4 +/- 17.5 years) from the Dutch general population completed questionnaires on demographics, adverse early life-events (ETI), Type D personality (DS14), anxiety (GAD-7) and depressive (PHQ-9) symptoms, and traditional cardiovascular risk markers.
A step-3 latent profile analysis identified three profiles in women (Reference, Type D & trauma, and Type D/no trauma) and four in men (Reference, Type D & trauma, Type D/no trauma, and Physical abuse). In women, the Type D/no trauma was associated with highest levels of emotional symptoms (OR = 2.47; 95% CI: 2.11-2.89), lipid abnormalities (OR = 3.69; 95% CI: 1.47-9.27), and increased levels of alcohol use (OR = 3.63; 95% CI: 1.42-930). The Type D & trauma profile was associated with increased levels of emotional symptoms (OR = 2.03; 95% CI: 1.70-2.42), highest levels of smoking (OR = 3.30; 95% CI: 1.21-8.97) and alcohol use (OR = 7.63; 95% CI: 2.86-20.33). Women in both profiles were older as compared to the Reference group (OR = 1.03; 95% CI: 1.01-1.05). In men, the Type D & trauma profile was associated with increased levels of emotional symptoms (OR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03-1.20). There were no significant differences between the profiles in lifestyle factors and cardiometabolic factors.
In women, the Type D/no trauma profile and the Type D & trauma profile were associated with a specific combination of cardiovascular risk markers. In men, the Type D & trauma profile was associated with an increased level of emotional symptoms.
- Type D
- trauma, personality, coping self-efficacy
- cardiovascular risk factors