Lawless Libya: Unprotected refugees kept powerless and silenced

Mirjam van Reisen, Klara Smits, Morgane Wirtz

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review

Abstract

After the legitimisation of some militias as enforcers and coast guards, the landscape of human smuggling and trafficking in Libya has changed drastically. The trafficking networks have gone underground and profit-making has become less about moving people across the Mediterranean Sea and more about human trafficking for ransom and forced labour. Refugees are kept in warehouse, abused and commoditised, sold and extorted for ransom. The almost total control of digital technology by ‘gatekeepers’ keeps the refugees in a ‘black hole’, which plays a vital role in the repression and human trafficking of refugees in Libya.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMobile Africa
Subtitle of host publicationHuman Trafficking and the Digital Divide
Place of PublicationBamenda, Cameroon
PublisherLangaa RPCIG
Chapter10
Pages261-293
ISBN (Print)9789956551132
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Publication series

NameConnected and Mobile: Migration and Human Trafficking in Africa
PublisherLangaa

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Keywords

  • Human Trafficking
  • Human smuggling
  • Libya
  • Eritrean refugees
  • gatekeepers
  • digital technology
  • militia

Cite this

van Reisen, M., Smits, K., & Wirtz, M. (2019). Lawless Libya: Unprotected refugees kept powerless and silenced. In Mobile Africa: Human Trafficking and the Digital Divide (pp. 261-293). (Connected and Mobile: Migration and Human Trafficking in Africa ). Langaa RPCIG. https://doi.org/10.2307/j.ctvvh85s6.17