Lawless Libya: Unprotected refugees kept powerless and silenced

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review


After the legitimisation of some militias as enforcers and coast guards, the landscape of human smuggling and trafficking in Libya has changed drastically. The trafficking networks have gone underground and profit-making has become less about moving people across the Mediterranean Sea and more about human trafficking for ransom and forced labour. Refugees are kept in warehouse, abused and commoditised, sold and extorted for ransom. The almost total control of digital technology by ‘gatekeepers’ keeps the refugees in a ‘black hole’, which plays a vital role in the repression and human trafficking of refugees in Libya.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationMobile Africa
Subtitle of host publicationHuman Trafficking and the Digital Divide
Place of PublicationBamenda, Cameroon
PublisherLangaa RPCIG
ISBN (Print)9789956551132
Publication statusPublished - 2019

Publication series

NameConnected and Mobile: Migration and Human Trafficking in Africa


  • Human Trafficking
  • Human smuggling
  • Libya
  • Eritrean refugees
  • gatekeepers
  • digital technology
  • militia


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