Learning How to Throw Darts Effects of Modeling Type and Reflection on Novices' Dart-Throwing Skills

Janneke van der Loo*, Emiel Krahmer, Marije van Amelsvoort

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


In this study, we investigated the effects of modeling type and reflection on the acquisition of dart-throwing skills, self-efficacy beliefs and self-reaction scores by conceptually replicating a study by Kitsantas, Zimmerman, and Cleary (2000). Participants observing a novice model were expected to surpass participants observing an expert model who in turn were expected to outperform participants who learned without a model. Reflection was hypothesized to have a positive effect. 156 High school and university students were tested three times: in a pretest, after a modeling intervention, and after a practice round. Contrary to what was expected, we found no main effects of modeling type and reflection. No interaction effects were found either. There was an effect of testing moment, indicating that participants improved dart-throwing skills, self-efficacy beliefs, and self-reaction scores over time. With these findings, we are not able to replicate Kitsantas et al. From our study, we conclude that observational learning, irrespective of the model's skill level, combined with physical practice, yields similar results as mere physical practice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)105-116
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Motor Behavior
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2021


  • darts
  • modeling type
  • motor skill learning
  • observational learning
  • reflection


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