Loneliness Across the Life Span

Pamela Qualter, Janne Vanhalst, Rebecca Harris, Eeske Van Roekel, G.M.A. Lodder, Munirah Bangee, Marlies Maes, Maaike Verhagen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

202 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Most people have experienced loneliness and have been able to overcome it to reconnect with other people. In the current review, we provide a life-span perspective on one component of the evolutionary theory of lonelinessa component we refer to as the reaffiliation motive (RAM). The RAM represents the motivation to reconnect with others that is triggered by perceived social isolation. Loneliness is often a transient experience because the RAM leads to reconnection, but sometimes this motivation can fail, leading to prolonged loneliness. We review evidence of how aspects of the RAM change across development and how these aspects can fail for different reasons across the life span. We conclude with a discussion of age-appropriate interventions that may help to alleviate prolonged loneliness.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)250-264
JournalPerspectives on Psychological Science
Volume10
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2015
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • loneliness
  • affiliation
  • development
  • prevalence
  • life span
  • hypervigilance
  • social withdrawal
  • evolutionary mechanism
  • SEROTONIN TRANSPORTER GENE
  • PERCEIVED SOCIAL-ISOLATION
  • DEPRESSIVE SYMPTOMS
  • YOUNG-ADULTS
  • INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES
  • PEER EXPERIENCES
  • MIDDLE CHILDHOOD
  • OLD-AGE
  • ADOLESCENCE
  • TRAJECTORIES

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