Long-term outcome and quality of life after arterial switch operation: A prospective study with a historical comparison

T.P.E. Ruys, A.E.M. van der Bosch , J.A.A.E. Cuypers, M. Witsenburg, W.A. Helbing, A.J.J.C. Bogers, R.T. van Domburg, J.S. McGhie, M.L. Geleijnse, J. Henrichs, E. Utens, H.B. van der Zwaan, J.J.M. Takkenberg, J.W. Roos-Hesselink

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34 Citations (Scopus)


The study aims to describe the long-term cardiological and psychological results of our first surgical cohort of arterial switch operation (ASO) patients and compare the results with our earlier series of Mustard patients.
Twenty-four survivors of ASO operated in our center (1985–1990) were evaluated by electrocardiography, echocardiography, magnetic resonance imaging, exercise testing, 24-hour Holter-monitoring, and health-related quality of life questionnaire. The results were compared with 58 adult Mustard patients who were evaluated in 2001 using the same study protocol.
Arterial switch operation was performed at a median age of 13 days and Mustard operation at 2 years. Median follow-up was 22 years (range 20–25) and 25 years (22–29), respectively. After ASO, survival was better (P =.04). The event-free survival after 22 years was 77% after ASO vs. 44% after Mustard (P =.03). Good systemic ventricular function was present in 93% after ASO vs. 6% after Mustard (P <.01). Exercise capacity in ASO was 85% of predicted, compared with 72% in Mustard patients (P =.01). Aortic regurgitation was found in 21% of ASO patients vs. 16% in Mustard patients. Arterial switch patients vs. Mustard patients reported significantly better quality of life and less somatic complaints.
The progression made in surgical treatment for transposition of the great arteries from Mustard to ASO has had a positive impact on survival, cardiac function, exercise capacity, and also self-reported quality of life and somatic complaints. Longer follow-up is warranted to monitor aortic regurgitation.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)203-210
JournalCongenital Heart Disease
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2013


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