In the current study, five annual wave longitudinal data were employed to examine the associations between Big Five personality traits and problem behavior (i.e., depression and aggression) in early to middle and middle to late adolescent boys and girls. Using cross-lagged panel models, we simultaneously tested two competing hypothesis: (1) a vulnerability hypothesis stating that Big Five personality traits would affect problem behavior and (2) a scar hypothesis asserting that problem behavior would affect Big Five personality traits. Results supported both hypotheses, as the effects between personality and problem behavior were bidirectional. These findings have important theoretical and clinical implications, as they suggest a transactional process.
Klimstra, T. A., Akse, J., Hale, W. W., Raaijmakers, Q. A. W., & Meeus, W. H. J. (2010). Longitudinal associations between personality traits and problem behavior symptoms in adolescence. Journal of Research in Personality, 44(2), 273-284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jrp.2010.02.004