Longitudinal measurement invariance of the Dutch Outcome Questionnaire-45 in a clinical sample

R. Jabrayilov, W.H.M. Emons, K. de Jong, K. Sijtsma

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


In the absence of measurement invariance across measurement occasions, change scores based on pretest–posttest measurements may be inaccurate representations of real change on the latent variable. In this study, we examined whether measurement invariance held in the Dutch version of Outcome Questionnaire-45 (OQ-45).
Using secondary data analysis of a sample of N = 540 Dutch outpatients, we tested the stability of the factorial structure (gamma change) and the metric and scalar invariance (beta change) across pretest and posttest measurements using a combination of factor analysis and item response theory methodology.
Results revealed a stable factorial structure from pretest to posttest and minor violations of metric invariance for two items in the Dutch OQ-45.
Even though for two items the assumption of invariance was violated, results suggest that the effects of these violations on practical change assessment using the OQ-45 were negligible.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1473–1481
JournalQuality of Life Research
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2017

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