Looming global-scale failures and missing institutions

B. Walker, A.J. de Zeeuw

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

303 Citations (Scopus)


Energy, food, and water crises; climate disruption; declining fisheries; increasing ocean acidification; emerging diseases; and increasing antibiotic resistance are examples of serious, intertwined global-scale challenges spawned by the accelerating scale of human activity. They are outpacing the development of institutions to deal with them and their many interactive effects. The core of the problem is inducing cooperation in situations where individuals and nations will collectively gain if all cooperate, but each faces the temptation to take a free ride on the cooperation of others. The nation-state achieves cooperation by the exercise of sovereign power within its boundaries. The difficulty to date is that transnational institutions provide, at best, only partial solutions, and implementation of even these solutions can be undermined by internation competition and recalcitrance.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1345-1346
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2009


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