Managing Human Activities in Antarctica: Should Wilderness Protection Count?

C.J. Bastmeijer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Antarctica is often described as one of the world's last wildernesses. In harmony with this general perception, the wilderness values of Antarctica received legal status with the adoption of the Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty. Article 3(1) of the Protocol obliges each Contracting Party to recognise the protection of wilderness values as a fundamental consideration in the planning and conduct of all activities in the Antarctic Treaty area. This contribution focuses on the question to what extend the concept of protecting wilderness values has received attention in the international management of Antarctica since the adoption of the Protocol in 1991. Are these values taken into account in Environmental Impact Assessment procedures for proposed Antarctic activities? Have Antarctic sites or areas been designated as Antarctic Specially Protected Areas because of their wilderness values? Do wilderness values play a role in the international debate on the management of Antarctic tourism?
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)335-353
Number of pages18
JournalNew Zealand Yearbook of International Law
Publication statusPublished - 2005


  • Antarctica
  • wilderness
  • Protocol on Environmental Protection
  • tourism
  • EIA


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