Mapping Dynamic Interactions Among Cognitive Biases in Depression

Jonas Everaert*, Amit Bernstein, Jutta Joormann, Ernst H. W. Koster

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Depression is theorized to be caused in part by biased cognitive processing of emotional information. Yet, prior research has adopted a reductionist approach that does not characterize how biases in cognitive processes such as attention and memory work together to confer risk for this complex multifactorial disorder. Grounded in affective and cognitive science, we highlight four mechanisms to understand how attention biases, working memory difficulties, and long-term memory biases interact and contribute to depression. We review evidence for each mechanism and highlight time- and context-dependent dynamics. We outline methodological considerations and recommendations for research in this area. We conclude with directions to advance the understanding of depression risk, cognitive training interventions, and transdiagnostic properties of cognitive biases and their interactions.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)93-110
JournalEmotion Review
Volume12
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2020
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • attention
  • cognitive biases
  • depression
  • executive control
  • long-term memory
  • working memory
  • LONG-TERM-MEMORY
  • SOCIAL ANXIETY DISORDER
  • ATTENTIONAL BIAS
  • EMOTIONAL INFORMATION
  • WORKING-MEMORY
  • INTRUSIVE MEMORIES
  • EXECUTIVE CONTROL
  • VISUAL-ATTENTION
  • IMPLICIT MEMORY
  • RISK-FACTORS

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