Measurement invariance in confirmatory factor analysis: An illustration using IQ test performance of minorities

J.M. Wicherts, C.V. Dolan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

62 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Measurement invariance with respect to groups is an essential aspect of the fair use of scores of intelligence tests and other psychological measurements. It is widely believed that equal factor loadings are sufficient to establish measurement invariance in confirmatory factor analysis. Here, it is shown why establishing measurement invariance with confirmatory factor analysis requires a statistical test of the equality over groups of measurement intercepts. Without this essential test, measurement bias may be overlooked. A re-analysis of a study by Te Nijenhuis, Tolboom, Resing, and Bleichrodt (2004) on ethnic differences on the RAKIT IQ test illustrates that ignoring intercept differences may lead to the conclusion that bias of IQ tests with respect to minorities is small, while in reality bias is quite severe.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)39-47
Number of pages9
JournalEducational Measurement: Issues and Practices
Volume29
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2010
Externally publishedYes

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