Decision support systems (DSS) play an important role in supporting scheduling tasks in industrial settings. In this paper, a special aspect of DSS for scheduling, namely their development, implementation and usage in relation to user participation, is examined. The outlined research model proposes that different forms of user participation lead to different levels of model complexity. This complexity influences in turn such outcome variables like system performance and user satisfaction. The research model integrates several existing concepts from technology acceptance, planned behaviour, involvement, and participation research as well as control theory. These theories are expanded by the dynamics of the modelling process. For the empirical analysis, multiple case studies examining different cases of DSS development and implementation processes in different settings were conducted.