Moving targets: Human references to unstable landmarks

Adriana Baltaretu, Emiel Krahmer, Alfons Maes

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review


In the present study, we investigate if speakers refer to moving entities in route directions (RDs) and how listeners evaluate these references. There is a general agreement that landmarks should be perceptually salient and stable objects. Animated movement attracts visual attention, making entities salient. We ask speakers to watch videos of crossroads and give RDs to listeners, who in turn have to choose a street on which to continue (Experiment 1) or choose the best instruction among three RDs (Experiment 2). Our results show that speakers mention moving entities, especially when their movement is informa-
tive for the navigation task (Experiment 1). Listeners understand and use moving landmarks (Experiment 1), yet appreciate stable landmarks more (Experiment
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 15th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG)
PublisherAssociation for Computational Linguistics
ISBN (Print)9781941643785
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Event15th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG) - University of Brighton, Brighton, United Kingdom
Duration: 10 Sept 201511 Sept 2015
Conference number: 15


Workshop15th European Workshop on Natural Language Generation (ENLG)
Abbreviated titleENLG
Country/TerritoryUnited Kingdom


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