Navigating the last mile: The demand effects of click-and-collect order fulfillment

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Many retailers are rushing into the click-and-collect (C&C) format, where shoppers place orders online and pick up the goods themselves later. The authors study the demand implications of C&C and postulate how different ways of organizing this format—each with its own convenience features—appeal to households with different shopper characteristics. Using two data sets, each covering the introduction of two C&C fulfillment types by a major grocery retailer in a large number of local markets, the authors compare the impact of in-store fulfillment (pickup at existing stores), near-store fulfillment (pickup at outlets adjoining stores), and stand-alone fulfillment (pickup at free-standing locations). The authors find that the shift in online consumer spending significantly differs between the three order fulfillment types, as does the impact on total spending. No one order fulfillment type systematically dominates; the effects depend heavily on shopper characteristics. The study’s results provide guidance on which C&C fulfillment type(s) to operate under what conditions and caution retailers not to take the easy in-store route routinely.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)158-178
JournalJournal of Marketing
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021


  • brick and mortar
  • click and collect
  • distribution channels
  • grocery shopping
  • e-commerce
  • online
  • order fulfillment
  • retailing


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