Neurocognitive effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: A randomized controlled trial

M. Bink, Ch. van Nieuwenhuizen, A. Popma, I.L. Bongers, G.J.M. van Boxtel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Objective: 
Neurofeedback aims to reduce symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mainly attention problems. However, the additional influence of neurofeedback over treatment as usual (TAU) on neurocognitive functioning for adolescents with ADHD remains unclear.
Method: 
By using a multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, male adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD (mean age = 16.1 years; range, 12–24) were randomized to receive either a combination of TAU and neurofeedback (n = 45) or TAU (n = 26). Randomization was computer generated and stratified by age group (ages 12 through 15, 16 through 20, and 21 through 24 years). The neurofeedback intervention consisted of approximately 37 sessions over a period of 25 weeks of theta/sensorimotor rhythm training on the vertex (Cz). Primary neurocognitive outcomes included performance parameters derived from the D2 Test of Attention, the Digit Span backward, the Stroop Color-Word Test and the Tower of London, all assessed preintervention and postintervention. Data were collected between December 2009 and July 2012.
Results: 
At postintervention, outcomes of attention and/or motor speed were improved, with faster processing times for both intervention conditions and with medium to large effect sizes (range, ηp2 = .08–.54; P values < .023). In both groups, no improvements for higher executive functions were observed. Results might partly resemble practice effects.
Conclusions: 
Although neurocognitive outcomes improved in all adolescents receiving treatment for ADHD, no additional value for neurofeedback over TAU was observed. Hence, this study does not provide evidence for using theta/sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback to enhance neurocognitive performance as additional intervention to TAU for adolescents with ADHD symptoms.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)535-542
JournalJournal of Clinical Psychiatry
Volume75
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Fingerprint

Neurofeedback
Executive Function
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
Age Groups
Color

Cite this

@article{a70b7841e0ad44b3a9641c51add70561,
title = "Neurocognitive effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD: A randomized controlled trial",
abstract = "Objective: Neurofeedback aims to reduce symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mainly attention problems. However, the additional influence of neurofeedback over treatment as usual (TAU) on neurocognitive functioning for adolescents with ADHD remains unclear.Method: By using a multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, male adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD (mean age = 16.1 years; range, 12–24) were randomized to receive either a combination of TAU and neurofeedback (n = 45) or TAU (n = 26). Randomization was computer generated and stratified by age group (ages 12 through 15, 16 through 20, and 21 through 24 years). The neurofeedback intervention consisted of approximately 37 sessions over a period of 25 weeks of theta/sensorimotor rhythm training on the vertex (Cz). Primary neurocognitive outcomes included performance parameters derived from the D2 Test of Attention, the Digit Span backward, the Stroop Color-Word Test and the Tower of London, all assessed preintervention and postintervention. Data were collected between December 2009 and July 2012.Results: At postintervention, outcomes of attention and/or motor speed were improved, with faster processing times for both intervention conditions and with medium to large effect sizes (range, ηp2 = .08–.54; P values < .023). In both groups, no improvements for higher executive functions were observed. Results might partly resemble practice effects.Conclusions: Although neurocognitive outcomes improved in all adolescents receiving treatment for ADHD, no additional value for neurofeedback over TAU was observed. Hence, this study does not provide evidence for using theta/sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback to enhance neurocognitive performance as additional intervention to TAU for adolescents with ADHD symptoms.",
author = "M. Bink and {van Nieuwenhuizen}, Ch. and A. Popma and I.L. Bongers and {van Boxtel}, G.J.M.",
year = "2014",
doi = "10.4088/JCP.13m08590",
language = "English",
volume = "75",
pages = "535--542",
journal = "Journal of Clinical Psychiatry",
issn = "0160-6689",
publisher = "Physicians Postgraduate Press Inc.",
number = "5",

}

Neurocognitive effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD : A randomized controlled trial. / Bink, M.; van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.; Popma, A.; Bongers, I.L.; van Boxtel, G.J.M.

In: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, Vol. 75, No. 5, 2014, p. 535-542.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Neurocognitive effects of neurofeedback in adolescents with ADHD

T2 - A randomized controlled trial

AU - Bink, M.

AU - van Nieuwenhuizen, Ch.

AU - Popma, A.

AU - Bongers, I.L.

AU - van Boxtel, G.J.M.

PY - 2014

Y1 - 2014

N2 - Objective: Neurofeedback aims to reduce symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mainly attention problems. However, the additional influence of neurofeedback over treatment as usual (TAU) on neurocognitive functioning for adolescents with ADHD remains unclear.Method: By using a multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, male adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD (mean age = 16.1 years; range, 12–24) were randomized to receive either a combination of TAU and neurofeedback (n = 45) or TAU (n = 26). Randomization was computer generated and stratified by age group (ages 12 through 15, 16 through 20, and 21 through 24 years). The neurofeedback intervention consisted of approximately 37 sessions over a period of 25 weeks of theta/sensorimotor rhythm training on the vertex (Cz). Primary neurocognitive outcomes included performance parameters derived from the D2 Test of Attention, the Digit Span backward, the Stroop Color-Word Test and the Tower of London, all assessed preintervention and postintervention. Data were collected between December 2009 and July 2012.Results: At postintervention, outcomes of attention and/or motor speed were improved, with faster processing times for both intervention conditions and with medium to large effect sizes (range, ηp2 = .08–.54; P values < .023). In both groups, no improvements for higher executive functions were observed. Results might partly resemble practice effects.Conclusions: Although neurocognitive outcomes improved in all adolescents receiving treatment for ADHD, no additional value for neurofeedback over TAU was observed. Hence, this study does not provide evidence for using theta/sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback to enhance neurocognitive performance as additional intervention to TAU for adolescents with ADHD symptoms.

AB - Objective: Neurofeedback aims to reduce symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mainly attention problems. However, the additional influence of neurofeedback over treatment as usual (TAU) on neurocognitive functioning for adolescents with ADHD remains unclear.Method: By using a multicenter parallel randomized controlled trial (RCT) design, male adolescents with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD (mean age = 16.1 years; range, 12–24) were randomized to receive either a combination of TAU and neurofeedback (n = 45) or TAU (n = 26). Randomization was computer generated and stratified by age group (ages 12 through 15, 16 through 20, and 21 through 24 years). The neurofeedback intervention consisted of approximately 37 sessions over a period of 25 weeks of theta/sensorimotor rhythm training on the vertex (Cz). Primary neurocognitive outcomes included performance parameters derived from the D2 Test of Attention, the Digit Span backward, the Stroop Color-Word Test and the Tower of London, all assessed preintervention and postintervention. Data were collected between December 2009 and July 2012.Results: At postintervention, outcomes of attention and/or motor speed were improved, with faster processing times for both intervention conditions and with medium to large effect sizes (range, ηp2 = .08–.54; P values < .023). In both groups, no improvements for higher executive functions were observed. Results might partly resemble practice effects.Conclusions: Although neurocognitive outcomes improved in all adolescents receiving treatment for ADHD, no additional value for neurofeedback over TAU was observed. Hence, this study does not provide evidence for using theta/sensorimotor rhythm neurofeedback to enhance neurocognitive performance as additional intervention to TAU for adolescents with ADHD symptoms.

U2 - 10.4088/JCP.13m08590

DO - 10.4088/JCP.13m08590

M3 - Article

VL - 75

SP - 535

EP - 542

JO - Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

JF - Journal of Clinical Psychiatry

SN - 0160-6689

IS - 5

ER -