Non-invasive Neurophysiology in Learning and Training: Mechanisms and a SWOT Analysis

Angelica M. Tinga, Tycho T. de Back, Max M. Louwerse

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Although many scholars deem non-invasive measures of neurophysiology to have promise in assessing learning, these measures are currently not widely applied, neither in educational settings nor in training. How can non-invasive neurophysiology provide insight into learning and how should research on this topic move forward to ensure valid applications? The current article addresses these questions by discussing the mechanisms underlying neurophysiological changes during learning followed by a SWOT (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats) analysis of non-invasive neurophysiology in learning and training. This type of analysis can provide a structured examination of factors relevant to the current state and future of a field. The findings of the SWOT analysis indicate that the field of neurophysiology in learning and training is developing rapidly. By leveraging the opportunities of neurophysiology in learning and training (while bearing in mind weaknesses, threats, and strengths) the field can move forward in promising directions. Suggestions for opportunities for future work are provided to ensure valid and effective application of non-invasive neurophysiology in a wide range of learning and training settings.
Original languageEnglish
JournalFrontiers in Neuroscience
Publication statusPublished - 5 Jun 2020


  • brain activity
  • eye tracking
  • heart rate
  • learning
  • neurophysiology
  • respiration
  • skin conductance
  • training

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