Olfactory cues are more effective than visual cues in experimentally triggering autobiographical memories

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Abstract

Folk wisdom often refers to odours as potent triggers for autobiographical memory, akin to the Proust phenomenon that describes Proust’s sudden recollection of a childhood memory when tasting a madeleine dipped into tea. Despite an increasing number of empirical studies on the effects of odours on cognition, conclusive evidence is still missing. We set out to examine the effectiveness of childhood and non-childhood odours as retrieval cues for autobiographical memories in a lab experiment. A total of 170 participants were presented with pilot-tested retrieval cues (either odours or images) to recall childhood memories and were then asked to rate the vividness, detail, and emotional intensity of these memories. Results showed that participants indeed reported richer memories when presented with childhood-related odours than childhood-related images or childhood-unrelated odours or images. An exploratory analysis of memory content with Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count did not reveal differences in affective content. The findings of this study support the notion that odours are particularly potent in eliciting rich memories and open up numerous avenues for further exploration.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)547-558
JournalMemory
Volume26
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2018

Fingerprint

Episodic Memory
Cues
Linguistics
Odorants
Childhood
Autobiographical Memory
Childhood Memories

Keywords

  • Scent
  • olfaction
  • odour
  • autobiographical memory
  • Proust
  • ODOR MEMORY
  • HYPOTHESIS
  • COGNITION
  • RECALL
  • WORDS
  • SELF
  • NOSE

Cite this

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title = "Olfactory cues are more effective than visual cues in experimentally triggering autobiographical memories",
abstract = "Folk wisdom often refers to odours as potent triggers for autobiographical memory, akin to the Proust phenomenon that describes Proust’s sudden recollection of a childhood memory when tasting a madeleine dipped into tea. Despite an increasing number of empirical studies on the effects of odours on cognition, conclusive evidence is still missing. We set out to examine the effectiveness of childhood and non-childhood odours as retrieval cues for autobiographical memories in a lab experiment. A total of 170 participants were presented with pilot-tested retrieval cues (either odours or images) to recall childhood memories and were then asked to rate the vividness, detail, and emotional intensity of these memories. Results showed that participants indeed reported richer memories when presented with childhood-related odours than childhood-related images or childhood-unrelated odours or images. An exploratory analysis of memory content with Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count did not reveal differences in affective content. The findings of this study support the notion that odours are particularly potent in eliciting rich memories and open up numerous avenues for further exploration.",
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author = "{de Bruijn}, M.J. and M. Bender",
year = "2018",
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language = "English",
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pages = "547--558",
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}

Olfactory cues are more effective than visual cues in experimentally triggering autobiographical memories. / de Bruijn, M.J.; Bender, M.

In: Memory, Vol. 26, No. 4, 2018, p. 547-558.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

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AU - de Bruijn, M.J.

AU - Bender, M.

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AB - Folk wisdom often refers to odours as potent triggers for autobiographical memory, akin to the Proust phenomenon that describes Proust’s sudden recollection of a childhood memory when tasting a madeleine dipped into tea. Despite an increasing number of empirical studies on the effects of odours on cognition, conclusive evidence is still missing. We set out to examine the effectiveness of childhood and non-childhood odours as retrieval cues for autobiographical memories in a lab experiment. A total of 170 participants were presented with pilot-tested retrieval cues (either odours or images) to recall childhood memories and were then asked to rate the vividness, detail, and emotional intensity of these memories. Results showed that participants indeed reported richer memories when presented with childhood-related odours than childhood-related images or childhood-unrelated odours or images. An exploratory analysis of memory content with Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count did not reveal differences in affective content. The findings of this study support the notion that odours are particularly potent in eliciting rich memories and open up numerous avenues for further exploration.

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