Open Probability‐Based Panels

Bernd Weiss*, J.W.M. Das, A. Kapteyn, Michael Bosnjak, Ines Schaurer

*Corresponding author for this work

    Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapterScientificpeer-review


    Open probability‐based panels (OPP) aim at collecting high‐quality, population‐representative data either solely or partly through online questionnaires. The most salient feature is that they allow external researchers to apply for cross‐sectional as well as longitudinal data collection about various social science topics. All in all, a panel infrastructure is considered open when it is accessible for all academic researchers from any substantive area to field primary studies and when it provides access to the data collected. In this article, we first describe the essential features of OPPs and give a broad overview of some important OPPs, most notably the Open Probability‐based Panel Alliance (OPPA). We then highlight OPPs' primary and secondary research opportunities and discuss issues of recruitment and refreshment. This article concludes with a list of challenges that affect most OPPs and further research opportunities.
    Original languageEnglish
    Title of host publicationWiley StatsRef: Statistics Reference Online
    PublisherWiley-Blackwell/John Wiley & Sons
    Number of pages8
    Publication statusPublished - 2020


    • panel surveys
    • longitudinal surveys
    • online survey
    • mixed-mode designs
    • open science


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