Parenting theories describe that fluctuations in parenting and adolescent adaptation are linked within the same families. Studies on these so-called ‘within-family’ effects between parenting and adolescent adaptation are summarized in the current systematic review. Through a database and backward citation search, 46 eligible peer-reviewed studies were found, which were published between 2002 and 2018. The studies assessed a variety of parenting (i.e., support, control, negative interaction, time spent together, relationship quality, and differential parenting) and adaptation dimensions (i.e., externalizing and internalizing problems, affect, and interpersonal, academic, and physical functioning). Concerning the design of the studies, typical measurement intervals were either days (k = 10) or 6 months or longer (k = 30). Moreover, only six studies tested (and mostly found) heterogeneity in random slopes, and 20 studies used a moderation approach to explain heterogeneity. Of the concurrent associations, some (but not all) of the few available studies suggested that increases in parental control and support and decreases in negative interaction within a family were associated with decreases in externalizing and internalizing problems, as well as other indices of adolescent maladaptation. However, with respect to time-lagged associations, there is to date hardly any empirical evidence that parenting and adolescent adaptation predict each other within families. Based on the identified theoretical lacunas and empirical limitations, directions are provided for future within-family parenting studies.