Pathways to antisocial behavior: A framework to improve diagnostics and tailor therapeutic interventions

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The Antisocial Personality Disorder (ASPD), and antisocial behavior (ASB) in general, is associated with significant impact on individuals themselves, their environment, and society. Although various interventions show promising results, no evidence-based treatments are available for individuals with ASPD. Therefore, making informed choices about which treatment can be applied to an individual patient is complicated. Furthermore, contradictory findings on therapy effectiveness and underlying factors of ASB, such as cognitive impairments and personality traits, fuel the debate whether the conceptualization of ASPD in the DSM-5 is accurate and whether this population can be seen as homogeneous. A conceptual framework, based on the reciprocal altruism theory, is presented in which we propose different pathways to ASB. These pathways suggest underlying dynamics of ASB and provide an explanation for previous contradictory research outcomes. This framework is intended to serve as a clinically relevant model that provides directions for improving diagnostics and matching treatments to underlying dynamics in the antisocial population.
Original languageEnglish
Article number993090
Number of pages14
JournalFrontiers in Psychology
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • antisocial behavior
  • antisocial personality disorder
  • diagnostics
  • pathways
  • psychotherapy
  • reciprocity
  • treatment
  • trust


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