Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: A focus group study

Jeroen Bommele, Tim M. Schoenmakers, Marloes Kleinjan, Barbara van Straaten, Elske Wits, Michelle Snelleman, Dike van de Mheen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Background: 

In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or 'pros and cons') of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers.

Methods: 

We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and cons in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires.

Results: 

Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and cons of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight.

Conclusions: 

Although the perceived pros and cons of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and cons of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the 'Distorted Mirror Hypothesis'.

Original languageEnglish
Article number175
Number of pages10
JournalBMC Public Health
Volume14
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Hard-core smokers
  • Pros and cons
  • Smoking
  • Quitting
  • Focus groups
  • Netherlands
  • SELF-EFFICACY
  • NICOTINE DEPENDENCE
  • SOCIAL INFLUENCES
  • FAGERSTROM TEST
  • BELIEFS
  • HEALTH
  • CESSATION
  • QUESTIONNAIRE
  • PREVALENCE
  • SAMPLE

Cite this

Bommele, J., Schoenmakers, T. M., Kleinjan, M., van Straaten, B., Wits, E., Snelleman, M., & van de Mheen, D. (2014). Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: A focus group study. BMC Public Health, 14, [175]. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-175
Bommele, Jeroen ; Schoenmakers, Tim M. ; Kleinjan, Marloes ; van Straaten, Barbara ; Wits, Elske ; Snelleman, Michelle ; van de Mheen, Dike. / Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers : A focus group study. In: BMC Public Health. 2014 ; Vol. 14.
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abstract = "Background: In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or 'pros and cons') of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers.Methods: We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and cons in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires.Results: Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and cons of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight.Conclusions: Although the perceived pros and cons of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and cons of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the 'Distorted Mirror Hypothesis'.",
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Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers : A focus group study. / Bommele, Jeroen; Schoenmakers, Tim M.; Kleinjan, Marloes; van Straaten, Barbara; Wits, Elske; Snelleman, Michelle; van de Mheen, Dike.

In: BMC Public Health, Vol. 14, 175, 2014.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers

T2 - A focus group study

AU - Bommele, Jeroen

AU - Schoenmakers, Tim M.

AU - Kleinjan, Marloes

AU - van Straaten, Barbara

AU - Wits, Elske

AU - Snelleman, Michelle

AU - van de Mheen, Dike

PY - 2014

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N2 - Background: In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or 'pros and cons') of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers.Methods: We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and cons in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires.Results: Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and cons of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight.Conclusions: Although the perceived pros and cons of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and cons of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the 'Distorted Mirror Hypothesis'.

AB - Background: In the last decade, so-called hard-core smokers have received increasing interest in research literature. For smokers in general, the study of perceived costs and benefits (or 'pros and cons') of smoking and quitting is of particular importance in predicting motivation to quit and actual quitting attempts. Therefore, this study aims to gain insight into the perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers.Methods: We conducted 11 focus group interviews among current hard-core smokers (n = 32) and former hard-core smokers (n = 31) in the Netherlands. Subsequently, each participant listed his or her main pros and cons in a questionnaire. We used a structural procedure to analyse the data obtained from the group interviews and from the questionnaires.Results: Using the qualitative data of both the questionnaires and the transcripts, the perceived pros and cons of smoking and smoking cessation were grouped into 6 main categories: Finance, Health, Intrapersonal Processes, Social Environment, Physical Environment and Food and Weight.Conclusions: Although the perceived pros and cons of smoking in hard-core smokers largely mirror the perceived pros and cons of quitting, there are some major differences with respect to weight, social integration, health of children and stress reduction, that should be taken into account in clinical settings and when developing interventions. Based on these findings we propose the 'Distorted Mirror Hypothesis'.

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KW - SELF-EFFICACY

KW - NICOTINE DEPENDENCE

KW - SOCIAL INFLUENCES

KW - FAGERSTROM TEST

KW - BELIEFS

KW - HEALTH

KW - CESSATION

KW - QUESTIONNAIRE

KW - PREVALENCE

KW - SAMPLE

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DO - 10.1186/1471-2458-14-175

M3 - Article

VL - 14

JO - BMC Public Health

JF - BMC Public Health

SN - 1471-2458

M1 - 175

ER -

Bommele J, Schoenmakers TM, Kleinjan M, van Straaten B, Wits E, Snelleman M et al. Perceived pros and cons of smoking and quitting in hard-core smokers: A focus group study. BMC Public Health. 2014;14. 175. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2458-14-175