Peripheral arterial disease, gender, and depression in the Heart and Soul Study

S. Marlene Grenon, Beth E. Cohen, Kim Smolderen, Eric Vittinghoff, Mary A. Whooley, Jade Hiramoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


Despite the high prevalence of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in women, risk factors for PAD in women are not well understood.
Gender-specific risk factors for PAD were examined in a prospective cohort study of 1024 patients (184 women and 840 men) with stable coronary artery disease who were recruited between 2000 and 2002. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between traditional and nontraditional risk factors and PAD in men and women.
PAD was found in 11% of women and in 13% of men. Women with PAD had a similar prevalence of traditional risk factors (hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and smoking) compared with women without PAD and were significantly more likely to suffer from depression than women without PAD. Men with PAD were more likely to have hypertension, diabetes mellitus, a history of smoking, a worse lipid profile, and higher levels of inflammatory biomarkers than men without PAD. A multivariate model showed depression was the strongest independent factor associated with PAD in women, whereas smoking and elevated fibrinogen were independently associated with PAD in men.
The current findings suggest there are gender differences in risk factors for the development of PAD. Further research is needed to understand the role of depression in PAD.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)396-403
JournalJournal of Vascular Surgery
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2014


Dive into the research topics of 'Peripheral arterial disease, gender, and depression in the Heart and Soul Study'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this