Permanent land-based facilities for tourism in Antarctica: The need for regulation

C.J. Bastmeijer, M. Lamers, J. Harcha

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

22 Citations (Scopus)


Antarctica is often described as one of world's last wildernesses. For a very long time, its isolation from human settlements has provided an effective protection from intensive human visitation; however, over the past two decades, human activities in Antarctica – in particular tourist activities – have grown and diversified rapidly. In view of environmental and other concerns, regulating Antarctic tourism has become one of the major issues of debate within the Antarctic Treaty System. One of the questions that has received much attention since 2004 is the question of whether additional measures are needed to regulate (e.g., prohibit) the future development of permanent land-based facilities (e.g., hotels, visitor centres, logistic facilities) for tourism in Antarctica. A number of State governments involved in the Antarctic Treaty System proposed to prohibit such developments; however, the question has not yet received a clear answer.

After a brief introduction to the Antarctic Treaty System, this article provides a definition of permanent land-based facilities for tourism and an overview of current and past land-based tourism facilities in Antarctica. Next, the question of whether such facilities are likely to further develop in the near future is discussed and an inventory is made of arguments for and against such developments. In view of the focus of this journal, environmental issues will be discussed first, followed by other consideration. Based on this information, a number of regulatory options are described for consideration by policy makers. The authors argue that there is a need for regulating permanent land-based tourist facilities in Antarctica and in the conclusion of this article they express their views in respect of the most favourable option.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)84-99
JournalReview of European Community & International Environmental Law
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2008


  • Antarctic
  • Antarctic Treaty System
  • tourism
  • cumulative impacts
  • strategy for Antarctic tourism
  • permanent facilities
  • hotels
  • precautionary approach
  • Madrid Protocol
  • self-regulation
  • wilderness
  • intrinsic values


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