Pictorial representation of attachment

Measuring the parent-fetus relationship in expectant mothers and fathers

H.J.A. van Bakel, A.J.B.M. Maas, C.M.J.M. Vreeswijk, A.J.J.M. Vingerhoets

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Abstract

Background
Over the past decades, attachment research has predominantly focused on the attachment relationship that infants develop with their parents or that adults had with their own parents. Far less is known about the development of feelings of attachment in parents towards their children. The present study examined a) whether a simple non-verbal (i.e., pictorial) measure of attachment (Pictorial Representation of Attachment Measure: PRAM) is a valid instrument to assess parental representations of the antenatal relationship with the fetus in expectant women and men and b) whether factors such as gender of the parent, parity, and age are systematically related to parental bonding during pregnancy.
Methods
At 26 weeks gestational age, 352 primi- or multiparous pregnant women and 268 partners from a community based sample filled in the PRAM and the M/PAAS (Maternal/Paternal Antenatal Attachment Scale, Condon, 1985/1993).
Results
Results show that the PRAM was significantly positively associated to a self-report questionnaire of antenatal attachment in both expectant mothers and fathers. Age and parity were both found significantly related to M/PAAS and PRAM scores.
Conclusions
The present findings provide support that the PRAM is as a valid, quick, and easy-to-administer instrument of parent-infant bonding. However, further research focusing on its capacity as a screening instrument (to identify parents with serious bonding problems) and its sensitivity to change (necessary for the use in evaluation of intervention studies) is needed, in order to prove its clinical value.
Keywords: Antenatal, Attachment, Mother, Father, Pregnancy, Fetus
Original languageEnglish
Article number138
JournalBMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Volume13
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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Fathers
Fetus
Parents
Mothers
Parity
Self Report
Gestational Age

Cite this

@article{a3c75d9f6c90496b869e00275d23cfcf,
title = "Pictorial representation of attachment: Measuring the parent-fetus relationship in expectant mothers and fathers",
abstract = "BackgroundOver the past decades, attachment research has predominantly focused on the attachment relationship that infants develop with their parents or that adults had with their own parents. Far less is known about the development of feelings of attachment in parents towards their children. The present study examined a) whether a simple non-verbal (i.e., pictorial) measure of attachment (Pictorial Representation of Attachment Measure: PRAM) is a valid instrument to assess parental representations of the antenatal relationship with the fetus in expectant women and men and b) whether factors such as gender of the parent, parity, and age are systematically related to parental bonding during pregnancy.MethodsAt 26 weeks gestational age, 352 primi- or multiparous pregnant women and 268 partners from a community based sample filled in the PRAM and the M/PAAS (Maternal/Paternal Antenatal Attachment Scale, Condon, 1985/1993).ResultsResults show that the PRAM was significantly positively associated to a self-report questionnaire of antenatal attachment in both expectant mothers and fathers. Age and parity were both found significantly related to M/PAAS and PRAM scores.ConclusionsThe present findings provide support that the PRAM is as a valid, quick, and easy-to-administer instrument of parent-infant bonding. However, further research focusing on its capacity as a screening instrument (to identify parents with serious bonding problems) and its sensitivity to change (necessary for the use in evaluation of intervention studies) is needed, in order to prove its clinical value.Keywords: Antenatal, Attachment, Mother, Father, Pregnancy, Fetus",
author = "{van Bakel}, H.J.A. and A.J.B.M. Maas and C.M.J.M. Vreeswijk and A.J.J.M. Vingerhoets",
year = "2013",
doi = "10.1186/1471-2393-13-138",
language = "English",
volume = "13",
journal = "BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth",
issn = "1471-2393",
publisher = "BioMed Central",

}

Pictorial representation of attachment : Measuring the parent-fetus relationship in expectant mothers and fathers. / van Bakel, H.J.A.; Maas, A.J.B.M.; Vreeswijk, C.M.J.M.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, Vol. 13, 138, 2013.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Pictorial representation of attachment

T2 - Measuring the parent-fetus relationship in expectant mothers and fathers

AU - van Bakel, H.J.A.

AU - Maas, A.J.B.M.

AU - Vreeswijk, C.M.J.M.

AU - Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

PY - 2013

Y1 - 2013

N2 - BackgroundOver the past decades, attachment research has predominantly focused on the attachment relationship that infants develop with their parents or that adults had with their own parents. Far less is known about the development of feelings of attachment in parents towards their children. The present study examined a) whether a simple non-verbal (i.e., pictorial) measure of attachment (Pictorial Representation of Attachment Measure: PRAM) is a valid instrument to assess parental representations of the antenatal relationship with the fetus in expectant women and men and b) whether factors such as gender of the parent, parity, and age are systematically related to parental bonding during pregnancy.MethodsAt 26 weeks gestational age, 352 primi- or multiparous pregnant women and 268 partners from a community based sample filled in the PRAM and the M/PAAS (Maternal/Paternal Antenatal Attachment Scale, Condon, 1985/1993).ResultsResults show that the PRAM was significantly positively associated to a self-report questionnaire of antenatal attachment in both expectant mothers and fathers. Age and parity were both found significantly related to M/PAAS and PRAM scores.ConclusionsThe present findings provide support that the PRAM is as a valid, quick, and easy-to-administer instrument of parent-infant bonding. However, further research focusing on its capacity as a screening instrument (to identify parents with serious bonding problems) and its sensitivity to change (necessary for the use in evaluation of intervention studies) is needed, in order to prove its clinical value.Keywords: Antenatal, Attachment, Mother, Father, Pregnancy, Fetus

AB - BackgroundOver the past decades, attachment research has predominantly focused on the attachment relationship that infants develop with their parents or that adults had with their own parents. Far less is known about the development of feelings of attachment in parents towards their children. The present study examined a) whether a simple non-verbal (i.e., pictorial) measure of attachment (Pictorial Representation of Attachment Measure: PRAM) is a valid instrument to assess parental representations of the antenatal relationship with the fetus in expectant women and men and b) whether factors such as gender of the parent, parity, and age are systematically related to parental bonding during pregnancy.MethodsAt 26 weeks gestational age, 352 primi- or multiparous pregnant women and 268 partners from a community based sample filled in the PRAM and the M/PAAS (Maternal/Paternal Antenatal Attachment Scale, Condon, 1985/1993).ResultsResults show that the PRAM was significantly positively associated to a self-report questionnaire of antenatal attachment in both expectant mothers and fathers. Age and parity were both found significantly related to M/PAAS and PRAM scores.ConclusionsThe present findings provide support that the PRAM is as a valid, quick, and easy-to-administer instrument of parent-infant bonding. However, further research focusing on its capacity as a screening instrument (to identify parents with serious bonding problems) and its sensitivity to change (necessary for the use in evaluation of intervention studies) is needed, in order to prove its clinical value.Keywords: Antenatal, Attachment, Mother, Father, Pregnancy, Fetus

U2 - 10.1186/1471-2393-13-138

DO - 10.1186/1471-2393-13-138

M3 - Article

VL - 13

JO - BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

JF - BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth

SN - 1471-2393

M1 - 138

ER -