Presumed cultural similarity paradox

Expatriate adjustment and performance across the border or over the globe

P. Vromans, M.L. van Engen, S. Mol

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Purpose
To introduce the presumed cultural similarity paradox as a possible explanation for the findings that adjusting to a culturally similar country is just as difficult as adjusting to a culturally dissimilar country. We provide a conceptual framework, enabling further understanding and research into this phenomenon.
Design/methodology/approach
Expatriates moving to a country that shares common characteristics may presume more cultural similarity and easier adjustment than is actually the case. During their stay abroad, expatriates may find that these expectations are not met. While the smaller cultural distance may facilitate adjustment, the undermet expectations inhibit adjustment and performance.
Findings
A first preliminary test compared Dutch expatriates in Belgium (culturally similar) and in China (culturally dissimilar). The expectations of cultural similarity and adjustment difficulty of the expatriates in Belgium were significantly more undermet than those of the expatriates in China and this had a negative influence on affective adjustment. The larger cultural distance of China was negatively related to intercultural adjustment. Better adjustment, both affective and intercultural, led to better job performance.
Research limitations/implications
Future research should try to replicate and extend our findings to other cultural contexts.
Practical implications
Expatriates and their employers must consider and prepare for the increased chance of undermet expectations and the negative consequences this can have on adjustment and job performance, when moving to a culturally similar country.
Social implications
Expatriates and their employers must consider and prepare for the increased chance of undermet expectations and the negative consequences this can have on adjustment and job performance, when moving to a culturally similar country.
Originality/value
This paper conceptualizes and provide a theoretical framework that should allow future research to empirically test the psychological process that occurs in this paradox, accommodate the contrasting effects of cultural distance and met expectations of cultural similarity and investigate which characteristics of countries lead expatriates to presume more cultural similarity than is the case.
Keywords: Adjustment, Cross-cultural management, Cultural distance, Cultural similarity, Expatriates, Job performance, Met expectations
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)219-238
JournalJournal of Global Mobility
Volume1
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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Paradox
Globe
Expatriate adjustment
Expatriates
Cultural distance
Job performance
China
Belgium
Employers
Theoretical framework
Conceptual framework
Intercultural adjustment
Cultural context
Key words
Psychological
Cross-cultural management
Design methodology

Cite this

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title = "Presumed cultural similarity paradox: Expatriate adjustment and performance across the border or over the globe",
abstract = "PurposeTo introduce the presumed cultural similarity paradox as a possible explanation for the findings that adjusting to a culturally similar country is just as difficult as adjusting to a culturally dissimilar country. We provide a conceptual framework, enabling further understanding and research into this phenomenon.Design/methodology/approachExpatriates moving to a country that shares common characteristics may presume more cultural similarity and easier adjustment than is actually the case. During their stay abroad, expatriates may find that these expectations are not met. While the smaller cultural distance may facilitate adjustment, the undermet expectations inhibit adjustment and performance.FindingsA first preliminary test compared Dutch expatriates in Belgium (culturally similar) and in China (culturally dissimilar). The expectations of cultural similarity and adjustment difficulty of the expatriates in Belgium were significantly more undermet than those of the expatriates in China and this had a negative influence on affective adjustment. The larger cultural distance of China was negatively related to intercultural adjustment. Better adjustment, both affective and intercultural, led to better job performance.Research limitations/implicationsFuture research should try to replicate and extend our findings to other cultural contexts.Practical implicationsExpatriates and their employers must consider and prepare for the increased chance of undermet expectations and the negative consequences this can have on adjustment and job performance, when moving to a culturally similar country.Social implicationsExpatriates and their employers must consider and prepare for the increased chance of undermet expectations and the negative consequences this can have on adjustment and job performance, when moving to a culturally similar country.Originality/valueThis paper conceptualizes and provide a theoretical framework that should allow future research to empirically test the psychological process that occurs in this paradox, accommodate the contrasting effects of cultural distance and met expectations of cultural similarity and investigate which characteristics of countries lead expatriates to presume more cultural similarity than is the case.Keywords: Adjustment, Cross-cultural management, Cultural distance, Cultural similarity, Expatriates, Job performance, Met expectations",
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Presumed cultural similarity paradox : Expatriate adjustment and performance across the border or over the globe. / Vromans, P.; van Engen, M.L.; Mol, S.

In: Journal of Global Mobility, Vol. 1, No. 2, 2013, p. 219-238.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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T1 - Presumed cultural similarity paradox

T2 - Expatriate adjustment and performance across the border or over the globe

AU - Vromans, P.

AU - van Engen, M.L.

AU - Mol, S.

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N2 - PurposeTo introduce the presumed cultural similarity paradox as a possible explanation for the findings that adjusting to a culturally similar country is just as difficult as adjusting to a culturally dissimilar country. We provide a conceptual framework, enabling further understanding and research into this phenomenon.Design/methodology/approachExpatriates moving to a country that shares common characteristics may presume more cultural similarity and easier adjustment than is actually the case. During their stay abroad, expatriates may find that these expectations are not met. While the smaller cultural distance may facilitate adjustment, the undermet expectations inhibit adjustment and performance.FindingsA first preliminary test compared Dutch expatriates in Belgium (culturally similar) and in China (culturally dissimilar). The expectations of cultural similarity and adjustment difficulty of the expatriates in Belgium were significantly more undermet than those of the expatriates in China and this had a negative influence on affective adjustment. The larger cultural distance of China was negatively related to intercultural adjustment. Better adjustment, both affective and intercultural, led to better job performance.Research limitations/implicationsFuture research should try to replicate and extend our findings to other cultural contexts.Practical implicationsExpatriates and their employers must consider and prepare for the increased chance of undermet expectations and the negative consequences this can have on adjustment and job performance, when moving to a culturally similar country.Social implicationsExpatriates and their employers must consider and prepare for the increased chance of undermet expectations and the negative consequences this can have on adjustment and job performance, when moving to a culturally similar country.Originality/valueThis paper conceptualizes and provide a theoretical framework that should allow future research to empirically test the psychological process that occurs in this paradox, accommodate the contrasting effects of cultural distance and met expectations of cultural similarity and investigate which characteristics of countries lead expatriates to presume more cultural similarity than is the case.Keywords: Adjustment, Cross-cultural management, Cultural distance, Cultural similarity, Expatriates, Job performance, Met expectations

AB - PurposeTo introduce the presumed cultural similarity paradox as a possible explanation for the findings that adjusting to a culturally similar country is just as difficult as adjusting to a culturally dissimilar country. We provide a conceptual framework, enabling further understanding and research into this phenomenon.Design/methodology/approachExpatriates moving to a country that shares common characteristics may presume more cultural similarity and easier adjustment than is actually the case. During their stay abroad, expatriates may find that these expectations are not met. While the smaller cultural distance may facilitate adjustment, the undermet expectations inhibit adjustment and performance.FindingsA first preliminary test compared Dutch expatriates in Belgium (culturally similar) and in China (culturally dissimilar). The expectations of cultural similarity and adjustment difficulty of the expatriates in Belgium were significantly more undermet than those of the expatriates in China and this had a negative influence on affective adjustment. The larger cultural distance of China was negatively related to intercultural adjustment. Better adjustment, both affective and intercultural, led to better job performance.Research limitations/implicationsFuture research should try to replicate and extend our findings to other cultural contexts.Practical implicationsExpatriates and their employers must consider and prepare for the increased chance of undermet expectations and the negative consequences this can have on adjustment and job performance, when moving to a culturally similar country.Social implicationsExpatriates and their employers must consider and prepare for the increased chance of undermet expectations and the negative consequences this can have on adjustment and job performance, when moving to a culturally similar country.Originality/valueThis paper conceptualizes and provide a theoretical framework that should allow future research to empirically test the psychological process that occurs in this paradox, accommodate the contrasting effects of cultural distance and met expectations of cultural similarity and investigate which characteristics of countries lead expatriates to presume more cultural similarity than is the case.Keywords: Adjustment, Cross-cultural management, Cultural distance, Cultural similarity, Expatriates, Job performance, Met expectations

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