Protocol for the unclassified primary antibody deficiency (unPAD) study: Characterization and classification of patients using the ESID online registry

Lisanne M. A. Janssen, Ineke C. G. M. Reijnen, Cinzia Milito, David Edgar, Helen Chapel, Esther De Vries*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Primary antibody deficiencies (PADs) without an identified monogenetic origin form the largest and most heterogeneous group of primary immunodeficiencies. These patients often remain undiagnosed for years and many present to medical attention in adulthood after several infections risking structural complications. Not much is known about their treatment, comorbidities, or prognosis, nor whether the various immunological forms (decreased total IgG, IgG subclass(es), IgM, IgA, specific antibody responses, alone or in combination(s)) should be considered as separate, clearly definable subgroups. The unclassified primary antibody deficiency (unPAD) study aims to describe in detail all PAD patients without an identified specific monogenetic defect regarding their demographical, clinical, and immunological characteristics at presentation and during follow-up. In constructing these patterns, the unPAD study aims to reduce the number of missed and unidentified PAD patients in the future. In addition, this study will focus on subclassifying unPAD to support the identification of patients at higher risk for infection or immune dysregulation related complications, enabling the development of personalized follow-up and treatment plans.

Methods and analysis:
We present a protocol for a multicenter observational cohort study using the ESID online Registry. Patients of all ages who have given informed consent for participation in the ESID online Registry and fulfill the ESID Clinical Working Definitions for ‘unclassified antibody deficiency’, ‘deficiency of specific IgG’, ‘IgA with IgG subclass deficiency’, ‘isolated IgG subclass deficiency’, ‘selective IgM deficiency’, ‘selective IgA deficiency’ or ‘common variable immunodeficiency’ will be included. For all patients, basic characteristics can be registered at first registration and yearly thereafter in level 1 forms. Detailed characteristics of the patients can be registered in level 2 forms. Consecutive follow-up forms can be added indefinitely. To ensure the quality of the collected data, all data will be fully monitored before they are exported from the ESID online Registry for analysis. Outcomes will be the clinical and immunological characteristics of unPAD at presentation and during follow-up. Subgroup analyses will be made based on demographical, clinical and immunological characteristics.
Original languageEnglish
Article numbere0266083
Number of pages15
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Adult
  • Humans
  • IgA Deficiency
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Multicenter Studies as Topic
  • Observational Studies as Topic
  • Primary Immunodeficiency Diseases
  • Registries


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