Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study: A population-based cohort study

F.E.P. van Dooren, J. Denollet, F.R.J. Verhey, C.D. Stehouwer, S.J.S. Sep, R.M. Henry, S.P.J. Kremers, P.C. Dagnelie, N.C. Schaper, C.J.H. van der Kallen, A. Koster, F. Pouwer, M.T. Schram

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Abstract

Background
Strong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly discuss the importance of these findings for clinical research and practice.
Methods
We measured psychological distress and depression using the MINI diagnostic interview, the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 questionnaires in the first 864 participants of The Maastricht Study, a large, population-based cohort study. Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex and education level.
Results
Individuals with type 2 diabetes had higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms, odds ratios (95 % CI) were 3.15 (1.49; 6.67), 1.73 (0.83–3.60), 1.50 (0.72–3.12), for PHQ-9 ≥ 10, current depressive disorder and GAD-7 ≥ 10, respectively. Type D personality, social inhibition and negative affectivity were more prevalent in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios were 1.95 (1.23–3.10), 1.35 (0.93–1.94) and 1.70 (1.14–2.51), respectively. Individuals with type 2 diabetes were less extraverted, less conscientious, less agreeable and less emotionally stable, and similar in openness to individuals without type 2 diabetes, although effect sizes were small.
Conclusions
Individuals with type 2 diabetes experience more psychological distress and have different personality traits compared to individuals without type 2 diabetes. Future longitudinal analyses within The Maastricht Study will increase our understanding of biological and behavioral mechanisms that link psychological distress to morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes.
Keywords
Type 2 diabetes,, Cohort Design, Exploratory results, Depression, Anxiety, Personality
Original languageEnglish
Article number17
JournalBMC Psychiatry
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2016

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Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Depression
Odds Ratio
Glucose Tolerance Test
Logistic Models
Interviews

Cite this

van Dooren, F.E.P. ; Denollet, J. ; Verhey, F.R.J. ; Stehouwer, C.D. ; Sep, S.J.S. ; Henry, R.M. ; Kremers, S.P.J. ; Dagnelie, P.C. ; Schaper, N.C. ; van der Kallen, C.J.H. ; Koster, A. ; Pouwer, F. ; Schram, M.T. / Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study : A population-based cohort study. In: BMC Psychiatry. 2016 ; Vol. 16, No. 1.
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title = "Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study: A population-based cohort study",
abstract = "BackgroundStrong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly discuss the importance of these findings for clinical research and practice.MethodsWe measured psychological distress and depression using the MINI diagnostic interview, the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 questionnaires in the first 864 participants of The Maastricht Study, a large, population-based cohort study. Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex and education level.ResultsIndividuals with type 2 diabetes had higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms, odds ratios (95 {\%} CI) were 3.15 (1.49; 6.67), 1.73 (0.83–3.60), 1.50 (0.72–3.12), for PHQ-9 ≥ 10, current depressive disorder and GAD-7 ≥ 10, respectively. Type D personality, social inhibition and negative affectivity were more prevalent in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios were 1.95 (1.23–3.10), 1.35 (0.93–1.94) and 1.70 (1.14–2.51), respectively. Individuals with type 2 diabetes were less extraverted, less conscientious, less agreeable and less emotionally stable, and similar in openness to individuals without type 2 diabetes, although effect sizes were small.ConclusionsIndividuals with type 2 diabetes experience more psychological distress and have different personality traits compared to individuals without type 2 diabetes. Future longitudinal analyses within The Maastricht Study will increase our understanding of biological and behavioral mechanisms that link psychological distress to morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes.KeywordsType 2 diabetes,, Cohort Design, Exploratory results, Depression, Anxiety, Personality",
author = "{van Dooren}, F.E.P. and J. Denollet and F.R.J. Verhey and C.D. Stehouwer and S.J.S. Sep and R.M. Henry and S.P.J. Kremers and P.C. Dagnelie and N.C. Schaper and {van der Kallen}, C.J.H. and A. Koster and F. Pouwer and M.T. Schram",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.1186/s12888-016-0722-z",
language = "English",
volume = "16",
journal = "BMC Psychiatry",
issn = "1471-244X",
publisher = "BioMed Central",
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van Dooren, FEP, Denollet, J, Verhey, FRJ, Stehouwer, CD, Sep, SJS, Henry, RM, Kremers, SPJ, Dagnelie, PC, Schaper, NC, van der Kallen, CJH, Koster, A, Pouwer, F & Schram, MT 2016, 'Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study: A population-based cohort study', BMC Psychiatry, vol. 16, no. 1, 17. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12888-016-0722-z

Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study : A population-based cohort study. / van Dooren, F.E.P.; Denollet, J.; Verhey, F.R.J.; Stehouwer, C.D.; Sep, S.J.S.; Henry, R.M.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Schaper, N.C.; van der Kallen, C.J.H.; Koster, A.; Pouwer, F.; Schram, M.T.

In: BMC Psychiatry, Vol. 16, No. 1, 17, 2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Psychological and personality factors in type 2 diabetes mellitus, presenting the rationale and exploratory results from The Maastricht Study

T2 - A population-based cohort study

AU - van Dooren, F.E.P.

AU - Denollet, J.

AU - Verhey, F.R.J.

AU - Stehouwer, C.D.

AU - Sep, S.J.S.

AU - Henry, R.M.

AU - Kremers, S.P.J.

AU - Dagnelie, P.C.

AU - Schaper, N.C.

AU - van der Kallen, C.J.H.

AU - Koster, A.

AU - Pouwer, F.

AU - Schram, M.T.

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - BackgroundStrong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly discuss the importance of these findings for clinical research and practice.MethodsWe measured psychological distress and depression using the MINI diagnostic interview, the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 questionnaires in the first 864 participants of The Maastricht Study, a large, population-based cohort study. Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex and education level.ResultsIndividuals with type 2 diabetes had higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms, odds ratios (95 % CI) were 3.15 (1.49; 6.67), 1.73 (0.83–3.60), 1.50 (0.72–3.12), for PHQ-9 ≥ 10, current depressive disorder and GAD-7 ≥ 10, respectively. Type D personality, social inhibition and negative affectivity were more prevalent in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios were 1.95 (1.23–3.10), 1.35 (0.93–1.94) and 1.70 (1.14–2.51), respectively. Individuals with type 2 diabetes were less extraverted, less conscientious, less agreeable and less emotionally stable, and similar in openness to individuals without type 2 diabetes, although effect sizes were small.ConclusionsIndividuals with type 2 diabetes experience more psychological distress and have different personality traits compared to individuals without type 2 diabetes. Future longitudinal analyses within The Maastricht Study will increase our understanding of biological and behavioral mechanisms that link psychological distress to morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes.KeywordsType 2 diabetes,, Cohort Design, Exploratory results, Depression, Anxiety, Personality

AB - BackgroundStrong longitudinal evidence exists that psychological distress is associated with a high morbidity and mortality risk in type 2 diabetes. Little is known about the biological and behavioral mechanisms that may explain this association. Moreover, the role of personality traits in these associations is still unclear. In this paper, we first describe the design of the psychological part of The Maastricht Study that aims to elucidate these mechanisms. Next, we present exploratory results on the prevalence of depression, anxiety and personality traits in type 2 diabetes. Finally, we briefly discuss the importance of these findings for clinical research and practice.MethodsWe measured psychological distress and depression using the MINI diagnostic interview, the PHQ-9 and GAD-7 questionnaires in the first 864 participants of The Maastricht Study, a large, population-based cohort study. Personality traits were measured by the DS14 and Big Five personality questionnaires. Type 2 diabetes was assessed by an oral glucose tolerance test. Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate the associations of depression, anxiety and personality with type 2 diabetes, adjusted for age, sex and education level.ResultsIndividuals with type 2 diabetes had higher levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms, odds ratios (95 % CI) were 3.15 (1.49; 6.67), 1.73 (0.83–3.60), 1.50 (0.72–3.12), for PHQ-9 ≥ 10, current depressive disorder and GAD-7 ≥ 10, respectively. Type D personality, social inhibition and negative affectivity were more prevalent in type 2 diabetes, odds ratios were 1.95 (1.23–3.10), 1.35 (0.93–1.94) and 1.70 (1.14–2.51), respectively. Individuals with type 2 diabetes were less extraverted, less conscientious, less agreeable and less emotionally stable, and similar in openness to individuals without type 2 diabetes, although effect sizes were small.ConclusionsIndividuals with type 2 diabetes experience more psychological distress and have different personality traits compared to individuals without type 2 diabetes. Future longitudinal analyses within The Maastricht Study will increase our understanding of biological and behavioral mechanisms that link psychological distress to morbidity and mortality in type 2 diabetes.KeywordsType 2 diabetes,, Cohort Design, Exploratory results, Depression, Anxiety, Personality

U2 - 10.1186/s12888-016-0722-z

DO - 10.1186/s12888-016-0722-z

M3 - Article

VL - 16

JO - BMC Psychiatry

JF - BMC Psychiatry

SN - 1471-244X

IS - 1

M1 - 17

ER -