Psychological control by parents is associated with a higher child weight

Gerda Rodenburg*, Stef P. J. Kremers, Anke Oenema, Dike van de Mheen

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

Objective. 

In this examination of the association between parenting style and child weight, the neglected concept of 'psychological control' has been added to the generally accepted parenting dimensions 'support' and 'behavioural control'. Also explored is whether the potential association between parenting and child weight is moderated by socio-demographic variables (child's age/ethnicity, and parent's education level). 

Methods. 

A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,665 parent-child dyads. The children's mean age was 8 years. Their height and weight were measured to calculate their body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure the three parenting dimensions. Based on these dimensions, five parenting styles were defined: the authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, neglecting and rejecting parenting style. Child BMI z-scores were regressed on parenting style, adjusting for parental BMI, child ethnicity, and parent's education level. Results. Rejecting parenting, characterized by high psychological control, low support and low behavioural control, is the only parenting style significantly related to child BMI z-scores (beta = 0.074, p <0.001). The positive association was not moderated by socio-demographic variables. 

Conclusions. 

By adding the dimension of psychological control to the concept of parenting, this study has further elucidated the mechanisms whereby parenting may affect child weight. Demonstrating that 'rejecting parenting' is associated with a higher child weight, emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies in which parenting style is measured three-dimensionally. Potential mediating effects of parental feeding style and children's eating style, as well as age moderation, should be included in these studies.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)442-449
JournalInternational journal of pediatric obesity
Volume6
Issue number5-6
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2011
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Parenting style
  • psychological control
  • support
  • behavioural control
  • children
  • BMI
  • overweight
  • SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS
  • NEGLECTFUL FAMILIES
  • UNITED-STATES
  • OBESITY
  • ADOLESCENTS
  • OVERWEIGHT
  • STYLE
  • BEHAVIOR
  • ADJUSTMENT
  • AUTHORITARIAN

Cite this

Rodenburg, Gerda ; Kremers, Stef P. J. ; Oenema, Anke ; van de Mheen, Dike. / Psychological control by parents is associated with a higher child weight. In: International journal of pediatric obesity. 2011 ; Vol. 6, No. 5-6. pp. 442-449.
@article{b03aa8016881461cb568d736357359f2,
title = "Psychological control by parents is associated with a higher child weight",
abstract = "Objective. In this examination of the association between parenting style and child weight, the neglected concept of 'psychological control' has been added to the generally accepted parenting dimensions 'support' and 'behavioural control'. Also explored is whether the potential association between parenting and child weight is moderated by socio-demographic variables (child's age/ethnicity, and parent's education level). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,665 parent-child dyads. The children's mean age was 8 years. Their height and weight were measured to calculate their body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure the three parenting dimensions. Based on these dimensions, five parenting styles were defined: the authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, neglecting and rejecting parenting style. Child BMI z-scores were regressed on parenting style, adjusting for parental BMI, child ethnicity, and parent's education level. Results. Rejecting parenting, characterized by high psychological control, low support and low behavioural control, is the only parenting style significantly related to child BMI z-scores (beta = 0.074, p <0.001). The positive association was not moderated by socio-demographic variables. Conclusions. By adding the dimension of psychological control to the concept of parenting, this study has further elucidated the mechanisms whereby parenting may affect child weight. Demonstrating that 'rejecting parenting' is associated with a higher child weight, emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies in which parenting style is measured three-dimensionally. Potential mediating effects of parental feeding style and children's eating style, as well as age moderation, should be included in these studies.",
keywords = "Parenting style, psychological control, support, behavioural control, children, BMI, overweight, SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS, NEGLECTFUL FAMILIES, UNITED-STATES, OBESITY, ADOLESCENTS, OVERWEIGHT, STYLE, BEHAVIOR, ADJUSTMENT, AUTHORITARIAN",
author = "Gerda Rodenburg and Kremers, {Stef P. J.} and Anke Oenema and {van de Mheen}, Dike",
year = "2011",
doi = "10.3109/17477166.2011.590203",
language = "English",
volume = "6",
pages = "442--449",
journal = "International journal of pediatric obesity",
issn = "1747-7166",
publisher = "Informa Healthcare",
number = "5-6",

}

Psychological control by parents is associated with a higher child weight. / Rodenburg, Gerda; Kremers, Stef P. J.; Oenema, Anke; van de Mheen, Dike.

In: International journal of pediatric obesity, Vol. 6, No. 5-6, 2011, p. 442-449.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Psychological control by parents is associated with a higher child weight

AU - Rodenburg, Gerda

AU - Kremers, Stef P. J.

AU - Oenema, Anke

AU - van de Mheen, Dike

PY - 2011

Y1 - 2011

N2 - Objective. In this examination of the association between parenting style and child weight, the neglected concept of 'psychological control' has been added to the generally accepted parenting dimensions 'support' and 'behavioural control'. Also explored is whether the potential association between parenting and child weight is moderated by socio-demographic variables (child's age/ethnicity, and parent's education level). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,665 parent-child dyads. The children's mean age was 8 years. Their height and weight were measured to calculate their body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure the three parenting dimensions. Based on these dimensions, five parenting styles were defined: the authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, neglecting and rejecting parenting style. Child BMI z-scores were regressed on parenting style, adjusting for parental BMI, child ethnicity, and parent's education level. Results. Rejecting parenting, characterized by high psychological control, low support and low behavioural control, is the only parenting style significantly related to child BMI z-scores (beta = 0.074, p <0.001). The positive association was not moderated by socio-demographic variables. Conclusions. By adding the dimension of psychological control to the concept of parenting, this study has further elucidated the mechanisms whereby parenting may affect child weight. Demonstrating that 'rejecting parenting' is associated with a higher child weight, emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies in which parenting style is measured three-dimensionally. Potential mediating effects of parental feeding style and children's eating style, as well as age moderation, should be included in these studies.

AB - Objective. In this examination of the association between parenting style and child weight, the neglected concept of 'psychological control' has been added to the generally accepted parenting dimensions 'support' and 'behavioural control'. Also explored is whether the potential association between parenting and child weight is moderated by socio-demographic variables (child's age/ethnicity, and parent's education level). Methods. A cross-sectional study was performed among 1,665 parent-child dyads. The children's mean age was 8 years. Their height and weight were measured to calculate their body mass index (BMI). Parents completed a questionnaire to measure the three parenting dimensions. Based on these dimensions, five parenting styles were defined: the authoritative, permissive, authoritarian, neglecting and rejecting parenting style. Child BMI z-scores were regressed on parenting style, adjusting for parental BMI, child ethnicity, and parent's education level. Results. Rejecting parenting, characterized by high psychological control, low support and low behavioural control, is the only parenting style significantly related to child BMI z-scores (beta = 0.074, p <0.001). The positive association was not moderated by socio-demographic variables. Conclusions. By adding the dimension of psychological control to the concept of parenting, this study has further elucidated the mechanisms whereby parenting may affect child weight. Demonstrating that 'rejecting parenting' is associated with a higher child weight, emphasizes the need for longitudinal studies in which parenting style is measured three-dimensionally. Potential mediating effects of parental feeding style and children's eating style, as well as age moderation, should be included in these studies.

KW - Parenting style

KW - psychological control

KW - support

KW - behavioural control

KW - children

KW - BMI

KW - overweight

KW - SOCIOECONOMIC-STATUS

KW - NEGLECTFUL FAMILIES

KW - UNITED-STATES

KW - OBESITY

KW - ADOLESCENTS

KW - OVERWEIGHT

KW - STYLE

KW - BEHAVIOR

KW - ADJUSTMENT

KW - AUTHORITARIAN

U2 - 10.3109/17477166.2011.590203

DO - 10.3109/17477166.2011.590203

M3 - Article

VL - 6

SP - 442

EP - 449

JO - International journal of pediatric obesity

JF - International journal of pediatric obesity

SN - 1747-7166

IS - 5-6

ER -