We report the results of a framed field experiment, in which we study the effectiveness of punishment and reward in sustaining cooperation in a social dilemma. Punishments tend to be directed at non-cooperators and rewards are assigned by those who are relatively cooperative. In contrast to the results typically found in laboratory experiments, however, we find that punishments and rewards fail to increase the average level of cooperation.
Noussair, C. N., van Soest, D. P., & Stoop, J. T. R. (2015). Punishment, reward, and cooperation in a framed field experiment. Social Choice and Welfare, 45(3), 537-559. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00355-014-0841-8