Social outcomes can result both from people’s own behavior (claim process) and from the behavior of others (grant process). Prior research compared the effect of these two processes on people’s experience of inclusion and outperformance, using two virtual ball-toss games: claimball and cyberball. We extend this work by using the same games to assess reactions to a third social outcome, overinclusion. Participants obtained the majority of the ball-tosses (overinclusion) or almost no ball-tosses (ostracism) in claimball or cyberball. Results showed that (1) overinclusion was more satisfying than ostracism, (2) especially when granted by others and less so when claimed for oneself. These results advance knowledge about people’s experience of social outcomes, depending on the processes leading to them.
- Social outcomes