Reciprocal Associations Between Adolescents' Night-Time Sleep and Daytime Affect and the Role of Gender and Depressive Symptoms

Rinka M P van Zundert, Eeske van Roekel, Rutger C M E Engels, Ron H J Scholte

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

During adolescence, students not only obtain less sleep and sleep of poorer quality but also experience increases in negative affect, decreases in positive affect, and increases in depressive symptoms. Given that sleep and affect may both influence one another, a disruption of either one of the two may trigger a downward spiral where poor sleep and affective dysfunctioning continue to negatively influence each other. As a result, the present study aims to examine the bidirectional daily associations between adolescents' nighttime sleep (sleep quality and disturbance) and daytime affect as well as the moderational effects of participants' gender and depressive symptoms. To this end, we conducted hierarchical linear regression modelling in a sample of 286 13-16 year-old non-disordered adolescents (59 % female) who completed 9 randomly sampled assessments per day as well as a standard morning and evening assessment for a period of 6 days. Results indicate that sleep disturbance was not associated with positive and negative affect, whereas sleep quality was. Poorer sleep quality predicted more negative and less positive affect the next day, and also was predicted by higher levels of negative and lower levels of positive affect the day before. Girls and participants higher in depressive symptoms seemed to experience stronger adverse effects of poor sleep quality on their negative affect than boys and participants low in depressive symptoms. Additionally, the positive association between positive affect and next day's positive affect was weaker for those who scored higher on depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that improving sleep quality and improving daily affect are both useful strategies to create upward spirals of adolescent well-being that might be needed particularly for girls and adolescents with elevated symptoms of depression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)556-569
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Youth and Adolescence
Volume44
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2015
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

sleep
Depression
adolescent
gender
time
female adolescent
adolescence
Linear Models
experience
well-being
regression

Keywords

  • Adolescence
  • Sleep
  • Negative affect
  • Positive affect
  • Depressive symptoms
  • Gender differences
  • POSITIVE EMOTIONS
  • COGNITIVE VULNERABILITY
  • MOMENTARY ASSESSMENT
  • SUBJECTIVE SLEEP
  • CORTISOL-LEVELS
  • NEGATIVE AFFECT
  • MOOD DISORDERS
  • CHILDREN
  • EXPERIENCE
  • INSOMNIA

Cite this

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title = "Reciprocal Associations Between Adolescents' Night-Time Sleep and Daytime Affect and the Role of Gender and Depressive Symptoms",
abstract = "During adolescence, students not only obtain less sleep and sleep of poorer quality but also experience increases in negative affect, decreases in positive affect, and increases in depressive symptoms. Given that sleep and affect may both influence one another, a disruption of either one of the two may trigger a downward spiral where poor sleep and affective dysfunctioning continue to negatively influence each other. As a result, the present study aims to examine the bidirectional daily associations between adolescents' nighttime sleep (sleep quality and disturbance) and daytime affect as well as the moderational effects of participants' gender and depressive symptoms. To this end, we conducted hierarchical linear regression modelling in a sample of 286 13-16 year-old non-disordered adolescents (59 {\%} female) who completed 9 randomly sampled assessments per day as well as a standard morning and evening assessment for a period of 6 days. Results indicate that sleep disturbance was not associated with positive and negative affect, whereas sleep quality was. Poorer sleep quality predicted more negative and less positive affect the next day, and also was predicted by higher levels of negative and lower levels of positive affect the day before. Girls and participants higher in depressive symptoms seemed to experience stronger adverse effects of poor sleep quality on their negative affect than boys and participants low in depressive symptoms. Additionally, the positive association between positive affect and next day's positive affect was weaker for those who scored higher on depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that improving sleep quality and improving daily affect are both useful strategies to create upward spirals of adolescent well-being that might be needed particularly for girls and adolescents with elevated symptoms of depression.",
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Reciprocal Associations Between Adolescents' Night-Time Sleep and Daytime Affect and the Role of Gender and Depressive Symptoms. / van Zundert, Rinka M P; van Roekel, Eeske; Engels, Rutger C M E; Scholte, Ron H J.

In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 44, No. 2, 02.2015, p. 556-569.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Reciprocal Associations Between Adolescents' Night-Time Sleep and Daytime Affect and the Role of Gender and Depressive Symptoms

AU - van Zundert, Rinka M P

AU - van Roekel, Eeske

AU - Engels, Rutger C M E

AU - Scholte, Ron H J

PY - 2015/2

Y1 - 2015/2

N2 - During adolescence, students not only obtain less sleep and sleep of poorer quality but also experience increases in negative affect, decreases in positive affect, and increases in depressive symptoms. Given that sleep and affect may both influence one another, a disruption of either one of the two may trigger a downward spiral where poor sleep and affective dysfunctioning continue to negatively influence each other. As a result, the present study aims to examine the bidirectional daily associations between adolescents' nighttime sleep (sleep quality and disturbance) and daytime affect as well as the moderational effects of participants' gender and depressive symptoms. To this end, we conducted hierarchical linear regression modelling in a sample of 286 13-16 year-old non-disordered adolescents (59 % female) who completed 9 randomly sampled assessments per day as well as a standard morning and evening assessment for a period of 6 days. Results indicate that sleep disturbance was not associated with positive and negative affect, whereas sleep quality was. Poorer sleep quality predicted more negative and less positive affect the next day, and also was predicted by higher levels of negative and lower levels of positive affect the day before. Girls and participants higher in depressive symptoms seemed to experience stronger adverse effects of poor sleep quality on their negative affect than boys and participants low in depressive symptoms. Additionally, the positive association between positive affect and next day's positive affect was weaker for those who scored higher on depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that improving sleep quality and improving daily affect are both useful strategies to create upward spirals of adolescent well-being that might be needed particularly for girls and adolescents with elevated symptoms of depression.

AB - During adolescence, students not only obtain less sleep and sleep of poorer quality but also experience increases in negative affect, decreases in positive affect, and increases in depressive symptoms. Given that sleep and affect may both influence one another, a disruption of either one of the two may trigger a downward spiral where poor sleep and affective dysfunctioning continue to negatively influence each other. As a result, the present study aims to examine the bidirectional daily associations between adolescents' nighttime sleep (sleep quality and disturbance) and daytime affect as well as the moderational effects of participants' gender and depressive symptoms. To this end, we conducted hierarchical linear regression modelling in a sample of 286 13-16 year-old non-disordered adolescents (59 % female) who completed 9 randomly sampled assessments per day as well as a standard morning and evening assessment for a period of 6 days. Results indicate that sleep disturbance was not associated with positive and negative affect, whereas sleep quality was. Poorer sleep quality predicted more negative and less positive affect the next day, and also was predicted by higher levels of negative and lower levels of positive affect the day before. Girls and participants higher in depressive symptoms seemed to experience stronger adverse effects of poor sleep quality on their negative affect than boys and participants low in depressive symptoms. Additionally, the positive association between positive affect and next day's positive affect was weaker for those who scored higher on depressive symptoms. These findings suggest that improving sleep quality and improving daily affect are both useful strategies to create upward spirals of adolescent well-being that might be needed particularly for girls and adolescents with elevated symptoms of depression.

KW - Adolescence

KW - Sleep

KW - Negative affect

KW - Positive affect

KW - Depressive symptoms

KW - Gender differences

KW - POSITIVE EMOTIONS

KW - COGNITIVE VULNERABILITY

KW - MOMENTARY ASSESSMENT

KW - SUBJECTIVE SLEEP

KW - CORTISOL-LEVELS

KW - NEGATIVE AFFECT

KW - MOOD DISORDERS

KW - CHILDREN

KW - EXPERIENCE

KW - INSOMNIA

U2 - 10.1007/s10964-013-0009-3

DO - 10.1007/s10964-013-0009-3

M3 - Article

VL - 44

SP - 556

EP - 569

JO - Journal of Youth and Adolescence

JF - Journal of Youth and Adolescence

SN - 0047-2891

IS - 2

ER -