Reduction in gesture during the production of repeated references

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Abstract

In dialogue, repeated references contain fewer words (which are also acoustically reduced) and fewer gestures than initial ones. In this paper, we describe three experiments studying to what extent gesture reduction is comparable to other forms of linguistic reduction. Since previous studies showed conflicting findings for gesture rate, we systematically compare two measures of gesture rate: gesture rate per word and per semantic attribute (Experiment I). In addition, we ask whether repetition impacts the form of gestures, by manual annotation of a number of features (Experiment I), by studying gradient differences using a judgment test (Experiment II), and by investigating how effective initial and repeated gestures are at communicating information (Experiment III). The results revealed no reduction in terms of gesture rate per word, but a U-shaped reduction pattern for gesture rate per attribute. Gesture annotation showed no reliable effects of repetition on gesture form, yet participants judged gestures from repeated references as less precise than those from initial ones. Despite this gradient reduction, gestures from initial and repeated references were equally successful in communicating information. Besides effects of repetition, we found systematic effects of visibility on gesture production, with more, longer, larger and more communicative gestures when participants could see each other. We discuss the implications of our findings for gesture research and for models of speech and gesture production.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-17
Number of pages17
JournalJournal of Memory and Language
Volume79-80
Early online date11 Dec 2014
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2015

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Gestures
Experiments
Linguistics
Visibility
experiment
Semantics
Gesture

Keywords

  • Gesture
  • Repeated references
  • Reduction
  • Visibility

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@article{ae7f474a3fac498a9107c35eda3a6337,
title = "Reduction in gesture during the production of repeated references",
abstract = "In dialogue, repeated references contain fewer words (which are also acoustically reduced) and fewer gestures than initial ones. In this paper, we describe three experiments studying to what extent gesture reduction is comparable to other forms of linguistic reduction. Since previous studies showed conflicting findings for gesture rate, we systematically compare two measures of gesture rate: gesture rate per word and per semantic attribute (Experiment I). In addition, we ask whether repetition impacts the form of gestures, by manual annotation of a number of features (Experiment I), by studying gradient differences using a judgment test (Experiment II), and by investigating how effective initial and repeated gestures are at communicating information (Experiment III). The results revealed no reduction in terms of gesture rate per word, but a U-shaped reduction pattern for gesture rate per attribute. Gesture annotation showed no reliable effects of repetition on gesture form, yet participants judged gestures from repeated references as less precise than those from initial ones. Despite this gradient reduction, gestures from initial and repeated references were equally successful in communicating information. Besides effects of repetition, we found systematic effects of visibility on gesture production, with more, longer, larger and more communicative gestures when participants could see each other. We discuss the implications of our findings for gesture research and for models of speech and gesture production.",
keywords = "Gesture, Repeated references, Reduction, Visibility",
author = "M.W. Hoetjes and R.M.F. Koolen and M.B. Goudbeek and E.J. Krahmer and M.G.J. Swerts",
year = "2015",
doi = "10.1016/j.jml.2014.10.004",
language = "English",
volume = "79-80",
pages = "1--17",
journal = "Journal of Memory and Language",
issn = "0749-596X",
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}

Reduction in gesture during the production of repeated references. / Hoetjes, M.W.; Koolen, R.M.F.; Goudbeek, M.B.; Krahmer, E.J.; Swerts, M.G.J.

In: Journal of Memory and Language, Vol. 79-80, 2015, p. 1-17.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

TY - JOUR

T1 - Reduction in gesture during the production of repeated references

AU - Hoetjes, M.W.

AU - Koolen, R.M.F.

AU - Goudbeek, M.B.

AU - Krahmer, E.J.

AU - Swerts, M.G.J.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - In dialogue, repeated references contain fewer words (which are also acoustically reduced) and fewer gestures than initial ones. In this paper, we describe three experiments studying to what extent gesture reduction is comparable to other forms of linguistic reduction. Since previous studies showed conflicting findings for gesture rate, we systematically compare two measures of gesture rate: gesture rate per word and per semantic attribute (Experiment I). In addition, we ask whether repetition impacts the form of gestures, by manual annotation of a number of features (Experiment I), by studying gradient differences using a judgment test (Experiment II), and by investigating how effective initial and repeated gestures are at communicating information (Experiment III). The results revealed no reduction in terms of gesture rate per word, but a U-shaped reduction pattern for gesture rate per attribute. Gesture annotation showed no reliable effects of repetition on gesture form, yet participants judged gestures from repeated references as less precise than those from initial ones. Despite this gradient reduction, gestures from initial and repeated references were equally successful in communicating information. Besides effects of repetition, we found systematic effects of visibility on gesture production, with more, longer, larger and more communicative gestures when participants could see each other. We discuss the implications of our findings for gesture research and for models of speech and gesture production.

AB - In dialogue, repeated references contain fewer words (which are also acoustically reduced) and fewer gestures than initial ones. In this paper, we describe three experiments studying to what extent gesture reduction is comparable to other forms of linguistic reduction. Since previous studies showed conflicting findings for gesture rate, we systematically compare two measures of gesture rate: gesture rate per word and per semantic attribute (Experiment I). In addition, we ask whether repetition impacts the form of gestures, by manual annotation of a number of features (Experiment I), by studying gradient differences using a judgment test (Experiment II), and by investigating how effective initial and repeated gestures are at communicating information (Experiment III). The results revealed no reduction in terms of gesture rate per word, but a U-shaped reduction pattern for gesture rate per attribute. Gesture annotation showed no reliable effects of repetition on gesture form, yet participants judged gestures from repeated references as less precise than those from initial ones. Despite this gradient reduction, gestures from initial and repeated references were equally successful in communicating information. Besides effects of repetition, we found systematic effects of visibility on gesture production, with more, longer, larger and more communicative gestures when participants could see each other. We discuss the implications of our findings for gesture research and for models of speech and gesture production.

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