In modern economies, most money takes the form of inside money; deposits created by commercial banks to fund credit extension. Because inside money is used as a payment instrument, doubts about the risks associated with credit extension can affect aggregate outcomes. This paper constructs and analyzes a model of risky credit extension, inside money creation, and monetary exchange. When credit extension is sufficiently risky, a positive probability of bank default arises and this affects the return characteristics of inside money. Depositors then demand a risk premium for holding inside money, which drives a wedge between bankers' funding costs and the social benefits of money creation. This wedge negatively affects credit extension, output, and welfare. A government can restore efficiency by swapping risky inside money for risk-free forms of government debt.
|Name||CentER Discussion Paper|
- inside and outside money
- new monetarism