The literature about secularization proposes two distinct explanations of anti-Muslim sentiment in secularized societies. The first theory understands it in terms of religious competition between Muslims and the remaining minority of orthodox Protestants; the second understands it as resulting from value conflicts between Muslims and the nonreligious majority. The two theories are tested by means of a multilevel analysis of the European Values Study 2008. Our findings indicate that, although more secularized countries are on average more tolerant towards Muslims and Islam, strongest anti-Muslim attitudes are nonetheless found among the nonreligious in these countries.
Ribberink, E. C., Achterberg, P. H. J., & Houtman, D. (2017). Secular tolerance? Anti‐Muslim sentiment in Western Europe. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 56(2), 259–276. https://doi.org/10.1111/jssr.12335