Secular tolerance? Anti‐Muslim sentiment in Western Europe

E.C. Ribberink, P.H.J. Achterberg, D. Houtman

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

32 Citations (Scopus)


The literature about secularization proposes two distinct explanations of anti-Muslim sentiment in secularized societies. The first theory understands it in terms of religious competition between Muslims and the remaining minority of orthodox Protestants; the second understands it as resulting from value conflicts between Muslims and the nonreligious majority. The two theories are tested by means of a multilevel analysis of the European Values Study 2008. Our findings indicate that, although more secularized countries are on average more tolerant towards Muslims and Islam, strongest anti-Muslim attitudes are nonetheless found among the nonreligious in these countries.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)259–276
JournalJournal for the Scientific Study of Religion
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2017


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