Situational precursors of revenge: Social exclusion, relationship type, and opportunity

M. Elshout, R.M.A. Nelissen, I. van Beest, S. Elshout, W. van Dijk

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Little is known about the situational factors that turn feelings of revenge into actual acts of revenge. Addressing this gap in the literature, this study selected a representative sample of people who acted on their feelings of revenge (avengers) and of people who did not (nonavengers), obtaining a reflection of typical antecedents of revenge. Results revealed that avengers did not report more severe offenses. Neither did avengers report less closeness to offenders nor a larger number of audience members toward whom they might want to prove something. Results did reveal that revenge was more prevalent (a) among young, male friends and acquaintances; (b) in contexts involving social exclusion; and (c) if there was a possibility to take revenge.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)291–305
JournalPersonal Relationships
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2017


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