Field-theoretic derivation of bubble-wall force. (arXiv:2005.10875v2 [hep-th] UPDATED)

<a href="http://arxiv.org/find/hep-th/1/au:+Mancha_M/0/1/0/all/0/1">Marc Barroso Mancha</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/hep-th/1/au:+Prokopec_T/0/1/0/all/0/1">Tomislav Prokopec</a>, <a href="http://arxiv.org/find/hep-th/1/au:+Swiezewska_B/0/1/0/all/0/1">Bogumila Swiezewska</a>

We derive a general quantum field theoretic formula for the force acting on

expanding bubbles of a first order phase transition in the early Universe

setting. In the thermodynamic limit the force is proportional to the entropy

increase across the bubble of active species that exert a force on the bubble

interface. When local thermal equilibrium is attained, we find a strong

friction force which grows as the Lorentz factor squared, such that the bubbles

quickly reach stationary state and cannot run away. We also study an opposite

case when scatterings are negligible across the wall (ballistic limit), finding

that the force saturates for moderate Lorentz factors thus allowing for a

runaway behavior. We apply our formalism to a massive real scalar field, the

standard model and its simple portal extension. For completeness, we also

present a derivation of the renormalized, one-loop, thermal energy-momentum

tensor for the standard model and demonstrate its gauge independence.

We derive a general quantum field theoretic formula for the force acting on

expanding bubbles of a first order phase transition in the early Universe

setting. In the thermodynamic limit the force is proportional to the entropy

increase across the bubble of active species that exert a force on the bubble

interface. When local thermal equilibrium is attained, we find a strong

friction force which grows as the Lorentz factor squared, such that the bubbles

quickly reach stationary state and cannot run away. We also study an opposite

case when scatterings are negligible across the wall (ballistic limit), finding

that the force saturates for moderate Lorentz factors thus allowing for a

runaway behavior. We apply our formalism to a massive real scalar field, the

standard model and its simple portal extension. For completeness, we also

present a derivation of the renormalized, one-loop, thermal energy-momentum

tensor for the standard model and demonstrate its gauge independence.

http://arxiv.org/icons/sfx.gif