Subjective sleep impairment in adults with type 1 or type 2 diabetes: Results from Diabetes MILES-The Netherlands

Giesje Nefs, Esther Donga, Eus van Someren, Mariska Bot, Jane Speight, François Pouwer

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

56 Citations (Scopus)



Despite growing recognition of the impact of sleep on diabetes, a clear profile of people with diabetes regarding subjective sleep impairment has yet to be established. This study examines: (1) subjective sleep characteristics in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes; (2) the relationship of poor subjective sleep quality with glycaemic control, self-care and daytime functioning; (3) possible risk markers for poor sleep quality.


In a cross-sectional study, Dutch adults with type 1 (n=267) or type 2 diabetes (n=361) completed an online survey, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), socio-demographic, clinical, self-care and psychological measures.


Poor sleep quality (PSQI-score >5) was reported by 31% of adults with type 1 and 42% of adults with type 2 diabetes. Participants with good and poor sleep quality did not differ in self-reported HbA1c or the frequency of meeting lifestyle recommendations. Poor sleep quality was related to a higher self-care burden and higher levels of daytime sleepiness, fatigue, depressive and anxiety symptoms, and diabetes-specific distress. In multivariable logistic regression analyses examining risk markers, poor sleep quality was associated with depressive symptoms in adults with type 1 (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.25-1.54) and type 2 diabetes (OR=1.31, 1.16-1.47), and with being female in those with type 2 diabetes (OR=2.72, 1.42-5.20).


Poor subjective sleep quality is prevalent both in adults with type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and is related to poor daytime functioning and higher self-care burden. The temporal relation with depression and merits of therapy should be explored.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)466-475
JournalDiabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Sept 2015


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