Test for parameter heterogeneity in CO2-panel EKC estimations

E. Dijkgraaf, Herman Vollebergh

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


This paper casts doubt on empirical results based on panel estimations of an “inverted-U” relationship between per capita GDP and pollution. Using a new dataset for OECD countries on carbon dioxide emissions for the period 1960–1997, we find that the crucial assumption of homogeneity across countries is problematic. Decisively rejected are model specifications that feature even weaker homogeneity assumptions than are commonly used. Furthermore, our results challenge the existence of an overall Environmental Kuznets Curve for carbon dioxide emissions.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)229-239
JournalEnvironmental and Resource Economics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2005
Externally publishedYes


  • environmental Kuznets curves
  • heterogeneity
  • panel data


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