The Context of Women's Entrepreneurship in Pakistan: The Role of Patriarchy and Invisible Masculine Norms

Leona Achtenhagen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionScientificpeer-review

Abstract

This paper engages in the debate of gendered entrepreneurship and addresses the impact of patriarchy on women's entrepreneurship. Patriarchy and invisible masculine norms vary in different contexts, but are highly pronounced in Pakistan with its systematic subordination of women to men. So far, entrepreneurship scholarship has hardly addressed this issue of patriarchy and masculinity affecting women's entrepreneurial activity. In this paper, we show that patriarchy is a multifaceted phenomenon that goes beyond a unidirectional process of subordinating women. Our study gives voice to Pakistani women entrepreneurs and their different experiences of how they respond to the patriarchal system and invisible masculine norms. It thereby responds to the scholarly call to contextualize the findings of entrepreneurial studies within the local contexts in which they occur
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationInternational Conference on Governance and Public Policy (ICGPP’18)At: Fatima Jinnah Women University, Rawalpindi, Pakistan
Publication statusPublished - 2018

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