The distressed (Type D) and Five-Factor Models of personality in young, healthy adults and their association with emotional inhibition and distress

E. Svansdóttir, K.C. van den Broek, H.D. Karlsson, D.T. Olason, H. Thorgilsson, J. Denollet

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The distressed (Type D) personality (the combination of negative affectivity and social inhibition traits) has been associated with adverse health outcomes. This study investigated the validity of the Type D construct against the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality, and its association with emotional control and distress. In total 498 university students (mean age 28.9 ± 8.4 years) completed the Type D scale (DS14), and measurements for the FFM of personality, emotional control, anxiety, depression and stress. The construct validity of the Icelandic DS14 was confirmed. The Type D components negative affectivity and social inhibition were strongly associated with neuroticism and extraversion of the FFM (r = 0.82 and r = −0.67, respectively). Negative affectivity also correlated with rehearsal/rumination (r = 0.58) and social inhibition with emotional inhibition (r = 0.54), indicative of emotional control. Type D personality (40% of sample) was associated with higher levels of anxiety, depression and stress. The Type D personality components were associated with the FFM of personality, emotional control and emotional distress. Importantly, social and emotional inhibition were closely related, providing novel information about the presence of emotional inhibition within the social inhibition trait.
Highlights
► This study examined the validity of Type D personality in young, healthy adults.
► The Type D subcomponents correspond well with the Five-Factor Model of personality.
► The presence of emotional inhibition in the social inhibition trait was confirmed.
► Type D personality was related to elevated anxiety, depression and stress scores.
Keywords: Type D personality, Five-Factor Model of personality, Emotional control, Emotional distress, Validity
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)123-128
JournalPersonality and Individual Differences
Volume55
Issue number2
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2013

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